Walter Hoye

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Environmental Products (8)

In Abortion, Politics on June 25, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (8)

The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment ·

Poor, Rural Black American Men In The South Thought They Were Receiving “Free Health Care” From The United States Government

“The United States government did something that was wrong–deeply, profoundly, morally wrong. It was an outrage to our commitment to integrity and equality for all our citizens … clearly racist!” — President William Jefferson “Bill” Clinton’s apology for the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment to the eight remaining survivors, May 16th, 1997 1


Tuskegee Experiment Test Subjects

For forty (40) years between 1932 and 1972, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) conducted an experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis. 2



By 1910 my grandparents, in the South are two (2) and four (4) years old.

Executive Summary

“Arguably The Most Infamous Bio-Medical Research Study In U.S. History” 3

“The men’s status did not warrant ethical debate. They were subjects, not patients; clinical material, not sick people.” — Dr. John R. Heller, M.D., Director of the Public Health Service’s Division of Venereal Diseases 4


Doctor injecting a patient with placebo as part of the Tuskegee Syphilis StudyBetween 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee, Alabama the United States Public Health Service (PHS), which by the fall of 1979 would become the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 5,6 wholly dedicated to “improving the health, safety, and well-being of America,” 7 studied the natural progression of untreated syphilis in Black American men who thought they were receiving free health care from their government to the bitter end. 8 United States Public Health Service investigators recruited a total of six hundred (600) impoverished, Black American sharecroppers from Macon County, Alabama. 9 Three hundred and ninety-nine (399) had previously contracted syphilis before the study began. Two hundred and one (201) never had the disease. 10 As reasonable compensation for participating in the study, the Black American men Doctor injecting a patient with placebo as part of the Tuskegee Syphilis Studywere offered a free health care plan that included free meals and free burial insurance from the then trusted United States government11 The test subjects were never told they had syphilis and they were never treated for it. 12 According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the men were told they were being treated for “bad blood,” a local term used to describe several illnesses, including syphilis, anemia and fatigue. 13 While the Tuskegee study failed all ethical standards (including the 1947 Nuremberg Code14) protecting the legal rights of research subjects and prohibiting human experimentation, it was especially villainous, vile and vicious because the study’s researchers knowingly failed to treat patients after penicillin was validated as an effective cure for syphilis in the 1940s. 15 IN SUMMARY: Twenty-eight (28) men died of syphilis, one-hundred (100) men died from related complications, at least forty (40) wives were infected and nineteen (19) children contracted congenital syphilis at birth. 16

By 1932 my parents, born in the South, are two (2) and three (3) years old.

Part One: The Background

Working “For The Glory Of Science”

“The Longest Non-Therapeutic Experiment On Humans In Medical History” 17

“The Tuskegee Study had nothing to do with treatment. No new drugs were tested; neither was any effort made to establish the efficacy of old forms of treatment. It was a non–therapeutic experiment, aimed at compiling data on the effects of the spontaneous evolution of syphilis on Black males.” — James Howard Jones, Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment 18


Doctor drawing blood as part of the Tuskegee Syphilis StudyThe Oslo study of Untreated Syphilis, began in 1909 and was published in 192819 This epidemiological investigation of the natural course of the syphilitic infection based upon a re-study of the “Boeck-Bruusgaard Material” reported on the natural history of untreated syphilis in White males20 By 1932 the overtly racist assumptions then prevalent in American medicine, inclined physicians to believe that syphilis would react differently in Black American men21 Dr. Taliaferro Clark, who is credited with the Tuskegee study’s origin, initially wanted to study untreated Tuskegee Syphilis Study Macon County Letter To Patientssyphilis in a group of Black American men for six (6) to eight (8) months and then follow up with a treatment phase. 22 However, Dr. Clark didn’t like how expensive the treatment phase of the study was, calling the “spinal taps” given to the patients “treatment” and agreed with the deceptive methods recommended by his deputy, Dr. Raymond H. Vonderlehr, such as not disclosing the seriousness of untreated syphilis and misrepresenting daily doses of aspirin and iron supplements as useful medication to the volunteers of the study. 23,24 To better understand Dr. Clark’s attitude toward the Black American’s in the study, when referring to the volunteers he said: “These Negroes are very ignorant and easily influenced by things that would be of minor significance in a more intelligent group.” 25 Dr. Clark Tuskegee Study Promotion Flyerretired after the first year and was replaced by Dr. Vonderlehr who went on to gain the consent of the volunteers to endure “spinal taps” by calling them “special free treatment.” 26,27 Dr. Vonderlehr retired in 1943 and was replaced by Dr. John R. Heller as Director of the United States Public Health Service’s Division of Venereal Diseases28 In 1972 when the public learned the truth about the study, Dr. Heller refused to acknowledge the inherent inhumanity of the study, its similarities to Nazi human experimentation and defended the study’s unethical practices saying: “There was nothing in the experiment that was unethical or unscientific.” 29 “For the most part, doctors and civil servants simply did their jobs. Some merely followed orders, others worked for the glory of science.” 30

By the end of 1956 I am four (4) months old in Detroit, Michigan.

Part Two: On The Hill

A Congressional Hearing Was In Order

The Democratic Party Called for A Congressional Hearing To Investigate

“I didn’t want to believe it. This was the Public Health Service. We didn’t do things like that.” — Peter Buxtun, the whistleblower responsible for ending the Tuskegee syphilis experiment. 31


Peter Buxton Exposes The Tuskegee StudyIn December of 1965 Peter Buxtun, a social worker and epidemiologist in San Francisco, was hired by the Public Health Service to interview patients with sexually transmitted diseases. 32 In the course of his work, Buxtun learned of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. In November 1966 he filed an official protest and the United States Center for Disease Control (CDC) responded by asserting that the study must continue until all of the patients had died, allowing the researchers the opportunity Jean Heller Tuskegee Study Washington Star Articleto autopsy all the patients. 33 This conclusion was also backed by the National Medical Association and the American Medical Association34 In 1968 Buxtun, filed another protest and again, his concerns were ruled irrelevant. 35 By 1972 Peter Buxtun leaked information on the Tuskegee Experiment to Associated Press reporter Jean Heller (no relation to Dr. John R. Heller). Jean Heller’s story, in the Washington Evening Star Tuskegee Termination Memo from the Department Of Health, Education, And Welfare Office Of The Secretaryexposing the ruthlessly racist Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was published on Tuesday, July 25th, 197236 The next day, the story became front-page news in the New York Times. 37 Senator Edward Kennedy from Massachusetts, a member of the Democratic Party, called for a Congressional hearing where Peter Buxtun testified. 38 Shortly thereafter (Thursday, November 16th, 1972) the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was terminated. 39 Thank God! Understandably, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment created a deep and abiding distrust of governmental health care programs among Black Americans that is still in effect today.

By 1972 I am a sixteen (16) year old, high schooler in California.

In 1972 Democrat Carl Bert Albert was Speaker of the House.

Part Three: In The White House

A Presidential Apology Was In Order

The Democratic Party Reached Out To Restore The Trust Of Black American’s

“What was done cannot be undone. But we can end the silence. We can stop turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye and finally say on behalf of the American people, what the United States government did was shameful, and I am sorry … To our African American citizens, I am sorry that your federal government orchestrated a study so clearly racist.” — President William Jefferson “Bill” Clinton’s apology for the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment to the eight remaining survivors, May 16th, 1997 40


President Clinton Apologies To The Survivors Of The Tuskegee StudyThe United States Public Health Service’s Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was reminiscent of Nazi experiments in Nuremberg. For twenty-five (25) years Black Americans lived with the explanation that the United States Public Health Service’s researchers “merely followed orders” or sacrificially “worked for the glory of science.” I do not have the words to express how much it meant to Black Americans to hear President Clinton, on Friday, May 16th, 1997 apologize to the surviving Tuskegee patients on behalf of the nation.

By 1997 I am a licensed and ordained Baptist preacher in the Bay Area.

President Clinton Apologies To The Survivors Of The Tuskegee Study“To the survivors, to the wives and family members, the children and the grandchildren, I say what you know: No power on Earth can give you back the lives lost, the pain suffered, the years of internal torment and anguish. What was done cannot be undone. But we can end the silence. We can stop turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye and finally say, on behalf of the American people: what the United States government did was shameful. And I am sorry. The American people are sorry — for the loss, for the years of hurt. You did nothing wrong, but you were grievously wronged. I apologize and I am sorry that this apology has been so long in coming.” 41

 

Today I work full time in the Pro-Life movement to reach Black America.

 

Please NoteIn 1973, just sixty-seven (67) days after Merlin K. DuVal, Assistant Secretary to the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), wrote to Dorothy P. Rice, the Director of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), to terminate the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment in 1972, the United States Supreme Court decided both Roe and Doe, establishing a constitutional right to abortion on demand. 42


In 1972 Richard Milhous Nixon was President of the United States of America.

Conclusion

A New Order Is In Order

“Sincere,” “Sound” and “Good-Faith” Investments Are Needed

“I think he [Mitt Romney] has serious ideas. I just think those ideas would scare a lot of the American public. And I think that when the public hears them and hears that he is serious, then we get down to we’re not talking about Obamacare, we’re talking about your health care, we’re talking about your Social Security, we’re talking about your Medicare. When it starts coming into my house — that’s why I said when I spoke at the Martin Luther King Memorial, it’s not about Obama, it’s about your momma.” — Al Sharpton, on MSNBC’s Morning Joe, Live Thursday, December 29th, 2011 43


A New Order TodayI am often asked to explain “how can” and “why do” Black American’s embrace Obamacare. Frankly … While Black Americans have already experienced the manifold blessings of “free health care” under both White Democratic and White Republican administrations, the Democratic Party has publicly acknowledged America’s racist tendencies and boldly invested in Black America by way of Black Americans. This is not to say that the Democratic Party’s investments in my community have been “sincere,” “sound” or even “good-faith” investments. Not at all. However, this is to deliberately say, that “sincere,” “sound” and “good-faith” investments are exactly how New Order Investments by the Republican Party can and will effectively reach voters in communities of color. So what does this look like? “Sincere,” “sound” and “good-faith” investments have always had the power to make amends. “Sincere” investments will acknowledge and accept responsibility for the harm caused by past failures to love communities of color and model genuinely new behavior by spending the time, talent and treasure required to renew and reconcile the relationship. “Sound” investments will overcome the damage to communities of color caused by “politically expedient” spending on entitlement programs such as Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid by getting resources out of Washington, D.C. and back into the private sector where they can be used productively to create businesses and jobs. “Good-faith” investments will make room at the decision table for members from communities of color and meet the physical needs of women, children and broken families without violating their religious convictions.

Epilogue

What I ask for the Negro is not benevolence, not pity, not sympathy, but simply justice.” — Frederick Douglass , “What The Black Man Wants” at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in Boston, April, 1865, Please note that Douglass’ speech was given within days of the close of the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln44


EpilogueIt’s interesting to note that January 2004 marked the death of Ernest Hendon, the last survivor of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Hendon was in the control group that did not have syphilis. He was 96 years old. It’s also interesting to note that January 2012 marked the 40th year since the termination of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Furthermore, it’s very interesting to note that January 2013 will mark the beginning of the 40th year of legalized abortion on demand that deliberately targets communities of color. As I earnestly reflect on these dates, I can’t help but wonder … Could all this just be interesting? Or am I seeing a pattern? To be more specific and more to the point … Could all this just be coincidence? Or am I actually seeing the reality of an old, evil and eugenic effort to eliminate communities of color still at work in America? In the privacy of my heart, I know the answer. Don’t you? In the privacy of our hearts, don’t we all know the answer?

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Note(s):

· Frequently Asked Questions Examining Tuskegee: Question: Why is it called the Tuskegee Study? Answer: “The formal title of the Study in its first medical publications was ‘Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro.’ Beginning in 1954, the publications after that called it ‘the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis‘ or ‘the Tuskegee Study.’ It is not uncommon to name medical studies after the geographic location where they are done. When the newspaper story on the Study broke in 1972, the AP reporter Jean Heller called it ‘the Tuskegee Study‘ and the term ‘the Tuskegee Experiment‘ is often used as well.” Source: http://bit.ly/Mq79nx.


Reference(s):

01. Presidential Apology, U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee (http://1.usa.gov/ckDD3i).
02. Tuskegee Experiment Test Subjects, “Biomedical Ephemera, Or: A Frog for Your Boils.” A photograph from this blog for all biological and medical ephemera, from the age of Abraham through the era of medical quackery and cure-all nostrums. (http://bit.ly/LolBMC).
03. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/17wadX).
04. Tuskegee University, “Impact on Health Care,” Quote from the Director of Venereal Diseases at the Public Health Service from 1943 to 1948 (http://bit.ly/Kr3e5a).
05. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/17wadX).
06. United States Public Health Service, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Md8wGN).
07. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/4XuFpf).
08. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/17wadX).
09. Ibid.
10. Ibid.
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Nuremberg Code, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/gJAsaS).
15. Penicillin, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/f57k5S).
16. Back to Tuskegee, by Jeanne Winstead, Slide No. 16. (http://slidesha.re/bXnCMq).
17. James Howard Jones, Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (http://bit.ly/KqQawS).
18. Ibid. (http://bit.ly/LcD4mt).
19. The Oslo Study of Untreated Syphilis Review and Commentary, British Journal of Venereal Diseases, June 1956; 32(2): 70–78 (http://1.usa.gov/O2jUpE).
20. Ibid.
21. The Oslo Study, “Faces of Tuskegee” by the Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Sciences at Michigan State University (http://bit.ly/MPqb2r).
22. Ibid., Dr. Taliaferro Clark (http://bit.ly/MBmi4R).
23. Ibid.
24. Alan Bellows, “Bad Blood In Tuskegee” (http://bit.ly/LduslJ).
25. Dave Wong and Stephanie Lord, “People of the Tuskegee Experiment” (http://bit.ly/LNGdiN). See also the LeNoir: Tuskegee Syphilis Study Lecture on video (http://bit.ly/KSpPhj).
26. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, “Study Clinicians” (http://bit.ly/MCVAHc).
27. Dave Wong and Stephanie Lord, “People of the Tuskegee Experiment,” Dr. Raymond H. Vonderlehr (http://bit.ly/LNGdiN).
28. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, “Study Clinicians,” Dr. John R. Heller led the national division (http://bit.ly/MCVAHc).
29. Aftermath of the Study, Dr. John R. Heller quote: (http://bit.ly/NtsIDV). See also New York Times, July 26, 1972, p1.
30. Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, “Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press” Dr. John Heller’s quote is in the chapter entitled: “The History of ‘Black Paranoia'” on page 67 (http://bit.ly/L0WfkY).
31. Peter Buxtun, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MIKtKF).
32. Ibid.
33. Ibid.
34. Study Termination, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MpOuFk).
35. Peter Buxtun, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MIKtKF).
36. Ibid.
37. Ibid. See also “Effects of untreated syphilis in the negro male, 1932 to 1972: A closure comes to the Tuskegee study, 2004,” by Shamim M. Baker, Otis W. Brawley and Leonard S. Marks of the Urological Sciences Research Foundation. The article by Jean Heller, front page, New York Times, July 26, 1972. Investigative journalism first brought the story to public attention (http://bit.ly/fmdoUN). This news story is the property of Associated Press via Valeo Intellectual Property, Inc.
38. Ibid.
39. Memorandum, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of The Secretary, Merlin K. DuVal, M.D. says: “As recommended by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel, I have decided that the ‘Tuskegee Study‘ as a study of untreated syphilis must be terminated.” (http://bit.ly/LolBMC).
40. Presidential Apology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee” (http://1.usa.gov/ckDD3i).
41. Ibid.
42. Roe v. Wade, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/11oVBK).
43. Al Sharpton, “It’s Not About Obama, It’s About Your Momma” (http://bit.ly/vYz55I).
44. Frederick Douglass, “What The Black Man Wants” at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in Boston, April, 1865, Douglass delivered the following speech on the subject: The Equality Of All Men Before The Law. Again, please note that Douglass’ speech was given within days of the close of the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln. (http://bit.ly/LHwoOC).

Environmental Products (7)

In Abortion, Politics on June 18, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (7)

Black Wall Street

One Of The Worst Race Riots In Our Nation’s History Occurred In Tulsa.

“I took my little girl by the hand and fled out the west door on Greenwood. I did not take time to gat a hat for myself or baby, but started out north in Greenwood, running amidst showers of bullets from the machine gun located in the granay and from the men who were quickly surrounding our district.” — Mary E. Jones Parrish,, An eye-witness account of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot 1

Captured Negroes On The Way to Convention Hall During Tulsa Race Riot: June 1st 1921

According to the Tulsa Tribune, the National Guard mounted two machine guns
and fired into the area
. Black Americans surrendered and were disarmed.
They were taken in columns to Convention Hall, the McNulty Baseball Park, the Fairgrounds and to a flying field during the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. 2


Executive Summary

“The Worse Civil Disturbance Since The Civil War.” 3

“Personal belongings and household goods had been removed from many homes and piled in the streets. On the steps of the few houses that remained sat feeble and gray Negro men and women and occasionally a small child. The look in their eyes was one of dejection and supplication. Judging from their attitude, it was not of material consequence to them whether they lived or died. Harmless themselves, they apparently could not conceive the brutality and fiendishness of men who would deliberately set fire to the homes of their friends and neighbors and just as deliberately shoot them down in their tracks.” — Tulsa Daily World, June 2, 1921 4

National Guard Machine Gun TruckCommonly known as “Black Wall Street,” the racially segregated district of Greenwood in Tulsa was one of the most affluent All-Black Communities in the United States of America. 5 In its day, Greenwwod served as a powerful economic model of market-based approaches to abject poverty through private ownership, conservative values and self-sufficiency for Black Americans only one generation away from over four hundred (400) years of chattel antebellum slavery. 6 National Guard Machine Gun TruckThe area encompassed a population of 15,000 Black Americans7 However, in a matter of a fourteen (14) hour period, from Tuesday, May 31st, 1921 to Wednesday, June 1st, 1921, one of the worst race riots in the history of our nation destroyed a once thriving, thirty-five (35) square block Black Business District in northern Tulsa, Oklahoma. 8 Black Wall Street Child RescuerIn the end, 10,000 Black Americans were homeless, over 800 injuries were reported and over 600 successful Black Businesses were lost. 9 Among these businesses were twenty-one (21) churches, twenty-one (21) restaurants, thirty (30) grocery stores and two (2) movie theaters, plus a hospital, a bank, a post office, libraries, schools, law offices, a half-dozen private airplanes and even a bus system. 10 1,256 homes were reported burned and another The Death Of Dr. A. C. Jackson215 looted. 11 Property damage estimates ranging from 1.5 to 2 million dollars were reported which would amount to over twenty-one (21) million dollars in today’s money. 12 Of the thirty-seven (37) death certificates, twenty-five (25) were for Black males and twelve (12) for white males. While the true death toll will probably never be known, nine (9) Black victims were burned beyond recognition and could not identified. 13

Part One: Findings

On The Way To A Segregated “Colored” Restroom …

Tulsa Tribune Headline: “Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator”

“I shined shoes with Dick Rowland. He was an orphan and had quit school to take care of himself. The Drexel Building was the only place downtown where we were allowed to use the restroom. Dick was a quite kind of fella. Never in no trouble. When he went to use the bathroom…in the elevator he slipped and bumped her, she screamed, he ran, and was accused of raping a white woman. “In broad daylight?” The Tribune wrote a story that triggered the crowd at the Court House: “To lynch a Negro tonight.” The Tribune called him “Diamond Dick.” Me, or nobody on Greenwood ever heard that name for him before. They invented it. Dick Rowland was poor as me. Neither of us probably ever saw a real diamond.” — Robert Fairchild, Sr., The oral account of a Black American eyewitness of the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 14

Black Wall StreetTulsa, Oklahoma was a segregated city where Jim Crow practices were live and legal. Black Americans were not allowed to use toilet facilities used by White people15 There was no separate facility for Black Americans at the shoeshine parlor where Dick Rowland worked. 16 So the owner of the parlor arranged for Black American employees to use the segregated “Colored” restroom on the top floor of the nearby Drexel Building at 319 S. Main Street where the Renberg’s Department Store occupied the first two floors. 17 On Monday, May 30th, 1921, Dick Rowland, a Black American believed to be nineteen (19), entered the Drexel building elevator to access the “Colored Only” restroom where he tripped, and while falling, latched on to the arm of the White elevator operator, Sarah Page, then seventeen (17) years old. 18 Startled, Sarah screamed and a White clerk in a first floor store called the police and reported seeing Dick Rowland flee from the elevator and out of the building. 19 The White clerk on the first floor described the incident as an attempted assault. 20 Subsequently, Dick Rowland was arrested on Tuesday, May 31st, 1921. 21 According to the Tulsa World, “[Dick] Rowland‘s arrest the next morning was reported in a front-page story in that afternoon’s Tulsa Tribune. Headlined ‘Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator,’ the somewhat sensational account reported, accurately if perhaps imprudently, that [Dick] Rowland was to be charged with attempted assault. 22 It said [Dick] Rowland scratched [Sarah] Page and tore her clothes.” 23 While in custody, White citizens concerned for the safety of White women attempted to lynch Dick Rowland24 and Black citizens concerned for Dick Rowland’s life attempted to protect him 25 and the Tulsa, Oklahoma Race Riot of 1921 was on.

Part Two: The Aftermath

The Klu Klux Klan Benefited From The Riot

The “Assault” Case Against Dick Rowland Was Dropped

Black Wall StreetIn the early 1900s the economic prosperity of Black Americans was often realized amidst violent racial and political tension. 26 In Oklahoma the Klu Klux Klan made its first major appearance shortly before the riot in Tulsa. 27 It has been estimated that there were about 3,200 members of the Klu Klux Klan in Tulsa in 192128 As to be expected, researchers suspect that the incendiary impetus behind the riot in Tulsa was the Klu Klux Klan working in consort with ranking city officials and other sympathizers. However, it is interesting to note, that in the same month the case against Dick Rowland was dropped following the Black Wall Streetreceipt of a letter from Sarah Page to Tulsa county attorney, John Seaver where she stated that she did not wish to prosecute the case, 29 a large Klu Klux Klan rally was held at Convention Hall. 30 Just three (3) months after the Riot, Wednesday, August 31st, 1921 in a private ceremony 300 Tulsans, supported by a throng of 1,500 onlookers, were initiated as the first class of the Tulsa Klan No. 2. 31 By September 1921 twenty (20) hooded vigilantes “bullwhipped” a suspected bootlegger, car thief and hijacker Black Wall StreetJ. E. Frazier. Tulsa county attorney, John Seaver praised the Klu Klux Klan, intimated that Frazier probably got what he deserved and twelve (12) more “bullwhippings” followed. With the attack on Frazier, Tulsa’s Klu Klux Klan era was in full throttle. 32 In January of 1922, the Tulsa Benevolent Association of Tulsa, Oklahoma, a holding company for the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Inc. was formed. 33 Washington E. Hudson, the attorney for Dick Rowland, was noted among the founding members of the Tulsa Benevolent Association, where in a field north of Owasso, Oklahoma, a Black Wall Streetnighttime “naturalization” ceremony initiated 1,020 Tulsa Klavern members before a fiery, 70-by-20 foot cross34 Founding members provided the financing and leadership necessary to build the Klu Klux Klan’s temple, or Klavern, known as Beno Hall. It is reported that the locals jokingly called it “Be No Hall,” as in “Be No Nigger, Be No Jew, Be No Catholic, Be No Immigrant.” 35 By March 1922 Klu Klux Klan abducted and “bullwhippedJohn K. Smitherman, Black Wall Streeta prominent Black American. The Klu Klux Klan cut off a piece of his ear and tried to force Smitherman to eat it. 36 By April 1922 , more than 1,700 Klu Klux Klan members marched through downtown Tulsa while an airplane carrying an electrically lighted cross flew overhead. 37 In that spring’s city elections, Klu Klux Klan candidates swept every office, and did the same when county elections came around in the fall. 38 Between November 1921 and July 1923, according to formal indictments, thirty (31) Tulsans, Black Wall Streeteveryone an admitted Klansman were involved in twelve (12) “bullwhipping” events in the Tulsa. 39 By August 1923, just two (2) years after the riot, Oklahoma’s anti-klan, Democratic Governor, John Calloway “Jack” Walton (who would later be impeached), declared martial law in Tulsa County because of Klu Klux Klan activity. 40 Looking back, one can easily see how wise a decision it was for Dick Rowland to leave Tulsa immediately after he was freed. 41

Conclusion

An Open Letter To Black America

Black Wall Street Is The Model For Our Economic Success

THE NEGRO CANNOT WIN … if he is willing to sell the future of his children for his personal and immediate comfort and safety.” — Martin Luther King, Jr. (“The Living King”, Ebony, Vol. 41, No. 3, January 1986, Page 63.) 42

Black Wall Street Greenwood AvenueIn 1921 Black Wall Street, in the Greenwood Section of Tulsa, Oklahoma, was home to over 600 successful Black American businesses. Built by the blood and sweat of former slaves who traveled along the “Trail of Tears” to resettlement camps in Oklahoma and ironically aided by Jim Crow laws that forced the Black Community to become self-sustaining and interdependent, Black Wall Street became more than a bona fide “rags to riches” story. 43 Black Wall Street, in the midst of a corrupt and moraly bankrupt country, transformed into a proven economic model and blue print Black Wall Street Black Businessfor a productive, prosperous and secure future. According to David Reeves, an adjunct professor at San Francisco State University in the Afro Studies Department, a Black Wall Street “dollar circulated 36 to 1,000 times, sometimes taking a year for currency to leave the community. Now in 1995, a dollar leaves the Black community in fifteen (15) minutes.” 44 According to John and Maggie Anderson, founders of The Empowerment Experiment (formerly called the “Ebony Experiment“), despite the nearly $1 trillion dollars of buying power in Black America, for every dollar that Black Americans spend, only $0.02 cents Black Wall Street Grocery Storeare invested into Black-owned businesses. The Andersons advocate buying from Black-owned businesses to rebuild our community, schools, tax base and revitalize our workforce. 45 John Malveaux, President of the Long Beach Central Area Association, agreeing with the Andersons puts it this way; “there is a need to bring back some sense of cohesiveness in the [Black] community, not only culturally but economically. 46 I agree. Malveaux is spot on. Practically speaking, with only $0.02 cents of every dollar of our buying power left in our community, $0.98 cents of every dollar we spend is being Black Wall Street Buying And Sellingused by those who would oppress us. Essentially, we’re funding our own demise and I have to wonder if we’ve lost our mind? Are we so dependent upon the government’s dole that we can no longer discern the difference between life and death? Are we so deep in debt, so desperate and despondent in our disenfranchisement and disposition that we’ve abandoned the bloody lessons learned from the legacy of Black Wall Street and bought into the vicious vote buying schemes inherent in liberal policies? Star Parker, Founder and President of C.U.R.E., the Center for Urban Renewal and Education, in her “Memo to Romney” expands Black Wall Street Prosperitythe discussion when she says; “getting off Uncle Sam’s Plantation is no longer a problem limited to our poor. It is a problem and challenge for the whole country.” 47 Here’s my Memo to the Congressional Black Caucus: Capitalism for the rich and Socialism for the poor has not, does not and never, ever will work. It is long, long past time we got off Uncle Sam’s Plantation.” Booker Taliaferro Washington, championed biblically moral character, personal responsibility, education and economic empowerment. 48 He was prophetic when he said: “The greatness of a nation in the future will be measured not by Black Wall Street Memorialthe vessels that it floats, but by the number of schools and churches and useful industries that it keeps in existence. It will be measured not by the number of men killed, but by the number of men saved and lifted up.” 49 Here is my bottom line: When we (i.e., Black American consumers and entrepreneurs) invest in each other by way of the time tested and proven promises of market-based public policies that promote private property, personal responsibility, and limited government we fight poverty. When we live by biblical values, such as abstinence, education, faith, family and freedom, to protect biblically defined marriage, parental rights, the lives of our women and the life of our children inside the wombs of their mothers we please God. When we please God, we win.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Reference(s):

01. Tulsa Race Riot, “Re-examine the Riot,” Produced by the American Studies Program, Oklahoma State University (http://bit.ly/KFHOHK). See also Parrish, Mary E. Jones. An Eye-Witness Account of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot by Mrs. Mary E. Jones Parrish as published in 1923: John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation, 2009 Edition.
02. 1921 Tulsa Race Riot: captured men. Photo by Tulsa Historical Society: “Black detainees are led to the Convention Hall following a race riot in Tulsa, Okla, June 1, 1921. The National Guard rounded up blacks by the thousands and took them to the fairgrounds, the Convention Hall and a baseball stadium where they were given food and water. By day’s end, many thriving black businesses in a 35-block area had been torched.” (http://bit.ly/MOZn2V).
03. Tulsa Reparations Coalition, Prologue and quote by State Representative Don Ross, “Tulsa Race Riot — A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921” (http://bit.ly/Md5IE1).
04. Tulsa Race Riot Report, The Final Report of the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, February 28, 2001 (http://bit.ly/LSs3fq).
05. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, “The Black Wall Street,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/b9PcZ8).
06. Randy Krehbiel, World Staff Writer, “The Questions That Remain, A conversation about Tulsa’s Race Riot and racism today” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L). See also “Slavery in America — History.Com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts.” Quote: “Slavery in America began when the first African slaves were brought to the North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619, to aid in the production of such lucrative crops as tobacco.” (http://bit.ly/dERwex).
07. “The Eruption of Tulsa“: An NAACP Official Investigates the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (http://bit.ly/I7zidR).
08. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “Timeline” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L).
09. Tulsa Race Riot, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/2Cp2CU).
10. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, The Tulsa Race Riot, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/h0pbkE).
11. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Aftermath, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MEOcZS).
12. The 25 Worst Riots of All Time, #9 Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (http://bit.ly/8Wa3pa).
13. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “The Toll” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L).
14. Tulsa Race Riot, “Meet the Survivors,” Robert Fairchild, Sr. (http://bit.ly/LhqEQa).
15. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow, Jim Crow Stories, “Tulsa Riot (1921)” (http://to.pbs.org/Lrb9SE).
16. African–American Resource Center, Tulsa Race Riot Timeline with Maps, “The Seeds of Catastrophe”, May 31st, 1921 (http://bit.ly/NtmOos).
17. Dick Rowland, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Mdyogj).
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. The Tulsa Tribune, “Nab Negro for Attacking Girl In an Elevator,” Tuesday, May 31st, 1921 (http://bit.ly/c49bGW).
23. Ibid.
24. Dick Rowland, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Mdyogj).
25. Scott Ellsworth, “The Tulsa Race Riot — History Does Not Take Place In A Vacuum” (http://bit.ly/Ne6fN).
26. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, “The Black Wall Street,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/b9PcZ8).
27. Ibid.
28. Ibid.
29. Dick Rowland, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Mdyogj).
30. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “The Aftermath” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L).
31. Historical Atlas of Oklahoma, by Charles Robert Goins, Danney Goble, James H. Anderson, “Reported Incidents Involving The Ku Klux Klan, By County” (http://bit.ly/LSXKFw). See also Scott Ellsworth, “The Tulsa Race Riot — History Does Not Take Place In A Vacuum” (http://bit.ly/Ne6fN).
32. Beno Hall: Tulsa’s Den Of Terror, by Steve Gerkin, September 3rd, 2011 (http://bit.ly/MdPVov).
33. Ibid.
34. Ibid.
35. Ibid.
36. Historical Atlas of Oklahoma, by Charles Robert Goins, Danney Goble, James H. Anderson, “Reported Incidents Involving The Ku Klux Klan, By County” (http://bit.ly/LSXKFw).
37. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “The Aftermath” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L).
38. Ibid. See also The House of Kerr of Ardgowan, The Grandfather Kerr Clan. Quote: “The enormous economic power and political leverage of Tulsa’s oil establishment has always managed to suppress much public knowledge of the 1921 Tulsa Race War … or the complete Ku Klux Klan political takeover of Oklahoma after the November 1923 impeachment of Oklahoma’s courageous anti-Klan Governor Jack Walton orchestrated by Richard Lloyd Jones.” (http://bit.ly/MdTEm6). See also Tulsa Race Riot Survivors Sue Tulsa Tribune, by Attorney Jim Lloyd of Tulsa represents the survivors, Dated: Friday, May 30th, 2003, Here’s the case: “On the eve of the 83rd anniversary of the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, survivors of the Riot are filing a civil lawsuit in the Western US District Court, Kansas City Missouri, naming the Tulsa Tribune newspaper, the Estate of Editor and Publisher Richard Lloyd Jones Sr., the Estates and Family Trusts of Jones Family members and members of the Ku Klux Klan organization in Tulsa for their deliberate actions that started one of the worst race riots in American history.” (http://bit.ly/NEmDW9).
39. Historical Atlas of Oklahoma, by Charles Robert Goins, Danney Goble, James H. Anderson, “Reported Incidents Involving The Ku Klux Klan, By County” (http://bit.ly/LSXKFw).
40. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “The Aftermath” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L). See also Governor of Oklahoma (http://bit.ly/MEUNn6) and Impeachment (http://bit.ly/NtU3rE). See also Hiram Wesley Evans, the Imperial Wizard who “devoted funds to fighting Jack C. Walton, the anti-Klan governor of Oklahoma; to the group’s joy, Walton was impeached and removed from office in 1923.” (http://bit.ly/K8RILU).
41. Dick Rowland, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Mdyogj).
42. Martin Luther King, Jr., “The Living King”, Ebony, Vol. 41, No. 3, January 1986, Page 63 (http://bit.ly/LzCLHI). See also Stride Toward Freedom by Martin Luther King, Jr.: “The Negro cannot win the respect of his oppressor by acquiescing; he merely increases the oppressor’s arrogance and contempt. Acquiescence is interpreted as proof of the Negro’s inferiority. The Negro cannot win respect of the white people of the South or the peoples of the world if he is willing to sell the future of his children for his personal and immediate comfort and safety.” (http://bit.ly/LccWus).
43. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, The Roots, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MgPqdj). See also “Burning of Greenwood, Oklahoma – The Black Wall Street” by Samuel Black: “Based on the growth of African-Americans in Greenwood, Jim Crow laws legalizing segregation were passed in 1908.” (http://bit.ly/bVsusN).
44. David Reeves, “What Is Black Wallstreet?” (http://bit.ly/1Q5eOf).
45. Black Dollars, Support Black Businesses, by Dianne Anderson, Precinct Reporter Group, (http://bit.ly/LbcJKa).
46. Ibid.
47. Star Parker, author of “Uncle Sam’s Plantation: How Big Government Enslaves America’s Poor and What We Can Do About It” (http://amzn.to/MPW4sh). Star Parker is the founder and president of CURE, the Center for Urban Renewal and Education (http://bit.ly/8EtAxr), a 501(c)(3) non-profit think tank which promotes market based public policy to fight poverty. Hear ye her in: “Memo to Romney: Whole nation is on government plantation” (http://bit.ly/xaEPsR).
48. Booker T. Washington, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/1qr4J).
49. Vote God, is committed to motivating and mobilizing people of Faith to amply … Vote! Recent statistics show, 75% of “people of Faith” don’t vote! This will change, and MUST change this year (2012)! The earth groans and God stands, waiting for “people of Faith” to take a STAND for Him! Visit us on Facebook here: http://on.fb.me/KBRliU or stop by our website here: http://bit.ly/KIgp34.

Environmental Products (6)

In Abortion, Politics on June 11, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (6)

Brown v. Board of Education

This decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896.

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal Troops

The 101st Airborne Division (the “Screaming Eagles”), a U.S. Army modular light infantry division trained for air assault operations, escorted the Little Rock Nine students into the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. 1


Once Again Federal Troops Were Required

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal TroopsIn 1871 it took Republican President Ulysses S. Grant ordering federal troops to suppress the race–based para–military violence of the Klu Klux Klan against Black Americans in the Solid Democratic South so we could participate in the American Dream.· 2 In October of 1957, history repeated itself as it again took a Republican President (Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower) ordering federal troops to suppress race–based segregation supported by Democratic Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus who ordered the National Guard to block nine (9) Black American students from entering Little Rock Central High School so they could participate in the American Dream.· 3

The Backdrop

School Segregation BannedIn 1954 Brown v. Board of Education (i.e., “Brown I“) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” and that any state laws establishing separate public schools for Black and White students were unconstitutional. 4 This unanimous (9–0) decision, handed down on Friday, May 17th, 1954 by the Earl Warren Court, overturned the Melville Fuller Court’s infamous Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 5 which held “‘separate but equal‘ provision of private services mandated by state government is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause,” thus legalizing state–sponsored segregation.

A Supreme Presumption Of Faith

An Integrated School In 1954In 1955 the United States Supreme Court delegated the task of integrating schools to district courts with orders that desegregation occur “with all deliberate speed.” 6 However, many southern states interpreted Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 349 U.S. 294 (Tuesday, May 31st, 1955) (i.e., “Brown II“) as legal justification for resisting, delaying, and avoiding integration for years. 7 Using tactics such as closing down school systems, using state money to finance segregated “private schools,” and “token” integration where a few carefully selected Black children were admitted to former white-only schools, leaving the vast majority of Black students in underfunded and unequal Black schools. 8 So much for having faith in the system.

The Brown II Backstep

1956 Klu Klux Klan Child ProtestorBy 1956 Massive Resistance movements or the “Freedom of Choice” plans ruled the day. 9 These policies, backed by United States Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. and other White politicians and leaders in the state of Virginia in a campaign of new state laws designed to prevent public school desegregation after the Brown I decision in 1954. 10 I wonder where I’ve heard the expression: “Freedom of Choice” before? ··

Case In Point: Alabama

Alabama Billboard: Impeach Earl Warren!On Monday, November 24th, 1958 the same Warren Court that ruled “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” in Brown I quietly upheld the Alabama pupil placement law which sets up seventeen (17) separate standards for assigning pupils to public schools, as non-discriminatory on its face (Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham Board of Education, 162 F. Supp. 372). 11 This decision gave those resisting integration a legal way around the 1954 Brown I decision. While never mentioning race, Alabama legally implemented subjective measurements such as the psychological qualification of the pupil for the type of teaching and associates involved, the possibility of threat of friction or disorder, the possibility of breaches of the peace or ill will or economic retaliation within the community, and the maintenance or severance of established social and psychological relationships with other pupils and with teachers to determine if a student was the right fit for a school. 12

Case In Point: Virginia

Prince Edward Students Demand Their School Be Re-Opened!In Virginia the United States District Court ruled that Prince Edward County, Virginia did not have to desegregate immediately. 13 So when faced with a court order to finally begin desegregation the Prince Edward County board of supervisors stopped funding public schools for five (5) years (1959–1964) and implemented pupil placement lawswith all deliberate speed.” 14 Under pupil placement laws White students in the Prince Edward County were given financial assistance to attend White-only private academies that were taught by teachers formerly employed by the public school system, while Black students had no education at all unless they moved out of the Prince Edward County. 15

So What Happened In Arkansas?

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal TroopsThe Little Rock Nine was a group of Black American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 195716 The Black American students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Democratic Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus17 However, it was after Republican President Eisenhower federalized the entire 10,000 member Arkansas National Guard, effectively taking the threat violence out of the hands of Democratic Governor Faubus that the Black American students were able to safely attend class despite White Citizens Council mobs making threats to lynch them. 18

The Lost Year

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal TroopsBy the end of September 1957, the Little Rock Nine were admitted to Little Rock Central High under the protection of the U.S. Army and the Arkansas National Guard. 19 Nevertheless, they were still subjected to a year of physical and verbal abuse (i.e., being spat on and called names) by many of their fellow White students20 From August 1958 to August 1959 the Federal Courts ruled against Democratic Governor Faubus’ efforts to delay de–segregation, only to see him pass legislation that enabled him to close all public schools so he could set up private schools for White students, only to see three (3) segregation supporting school board members voted out of office and the public schools reopened on Wednesday, August 12th, 195921 Although the Lost Year had ended, the Black students who returned to the high schools had to get past lynch mobs to enter the school and suffer physical and emotional abuse. 22

Looking Forward To The Civil Rights Movement

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal TroopsBy 1959 Martin Luther King, Jr., had visited Gandhi’s birthplace, wrote the “Measure of a Man,” received the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for his book “Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story,” met Vice President Richard Nixon and said: “If Richard Nixon is not sincere, he is the most dangerous man in America.” 23 By the end of August of 1959 I was three (3) years old.

Is Violence Necessary To Combat Injustice?

“The Negro people can organize socially to initiate many forms of struggle which can drive their enemies back without resort to futile and harmful violence.” — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., The Southern Patriot debate with North Carolina NAACP leader Robert F. Williams 24

The Southern Patriot: For The Negative: King Sees Alternative In Mass Actions

 

The Southern Patriot

Published in the October 1959 Edition of The Southern Patriot, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. debated North Carolina NAACP leader Robert F. Williams and wrote the following as he addressed the United States Supreme Court upholding the Pupil Placement Law and the ever present need for Federal action25

“For The Negative: King Sees Alternative In Mass Actions”

MLK Being Booked Into JailParadoxically, the struggle for civil rights has reached a stage of profound crisis, although its outward aspect is distinctly less turbulent and victories of token integration have been won in the hard-resistance areas of Virginia and Arkansas. The crisis has its origin in a decision rendered by the Supreme Court more than a year ago which upheld the pupil placement law. Though little noticed then, this decision fundamentally weakened the historic 1954 ruling of the Court. It is imperceptibly becoming the basis of a de facto compromise between the powerful contending forces. The 1954 decision required for effective implementation resolute Federal action supported by mass action to undergird all necessary changes. It is obvious that Federal action by the legislative and executive branches was half-hearted and inadequate. The activity of Negro forces, while heroic in some instances, and impressive in other sporadic situations, lacked consistency and militancy sufficient to fill the void left by government default. The segregationists were swift to seize these advantages, and unrestrained by moral or social conscience, defied the law boldly and brazenly. The net effect of this social equation has led to the present situation, which is without clearcut victory for either side. Token integration is a developing pattern. This type of integration is merely an affirmation of a principle without the substance of change. It is, like the Supreme Court decision, a pronouncement of justice, but by itself does not insure that the millions of Negro children will be educated in conditions of equality. This is not to say that it is without value. It has substantial importance. However, it fundamentally changes the outlook of the whole movement, for it raises the prospect of long, slow change without a predictable end.” 26

I agree with Dr. King. Don’t you?

Supreme Court Decisions And Federal Troops Are Not Enough

“The Negro cannot win … if he is willing to sell the future of his children for his personal and immediate comfort and safety.” — Martin Luther King, Jr. (“The Living King”, Ebony, Vol. 41, No. 3, January 1986, Page 63.) 27

I am often asked about Black American leadership’s devotion to government welfare programs and our acrimonious relationship with the Pro-Life movement. Specifically, I am asked why Black American leadership cannot see the obvious correlation and natural relationship between the Civil Rights movement and the Pro-Life movement. The answer lies in the fact that much of Pro-Life movement is consumed with developing political equity and reversing United States Supreme Court decisions instead of moving the hearts and minds of people by meeting the need of women and children. The Little Rock Nine are the latest case in point in this series of columns. Neither United States Supreme Court decisions nor political equity was enough overcome the evil in the heart of segregationists.

Why?

I believe Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. would have put it this way:

It is obvious that Federal action by the legislative and executive branches [is] half-hearted and inadequate. The activity of Negro forces, while heroic in some instances, and impressive in other sporadic situations, lacked consistency and militancy sufficient to fill the void left by government default. The [Pro-Abortionists] were swift to seize these advantages, and unrestrained by moral or social conscience, [defined] the law boldly and brazenly. The net effect of this social equation has led to the present situation [i.e., life versus death], which is without clearcut victory for either side. Token [Pro-Life gains] is a developing pattern. This type of [progress] is merely an affirmation of a principle without the substance of change. It is, like the Supreme Court decision [of 1973], a [bold] pronouncement of [“reproductive justicefor women], but by itself does not insure that the millions of Negro [women and children will live] in conditions of equality. This is not to say that [political equity and United States Supreme Court decisions are] without value. [Both have] substantial importance. However, [emphasis on either] fundamentally changes the outlook of the whole [Pro-Life] movement, for it raises the prospect of long, slow change without a predictable end.”

Forty (40) Years And Over Fifty-Five (55) Million Lives And Counting

No community or people group can survive without their women and children living in conditions of equality. In the last forty (40) years, with the exception of Personhood28 not one Pro-Life strategy to end abortion has been embraced by communities of color. As a member of a community of color and with the survival of our women and children at stake and on my heart, I am concerned that another forty (40) years of the “art of compromise” 29 and half-hearted court decisions will indeed mark the end of my people. 30

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Note(s):
· American Dream:” The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States; a set of ideals in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, and an upward social mobility achieved through hard work. In the definition of the American Dream by James Truslow Adams in 1931, ‘life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievementregardless of social class or circumstances of birth. The idea of the American Dream is rooted in the United States Declaration of Independence which proclaims that ‘all men are created equal ‘ and that they are ‘endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights ‘ including ‘Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness .'” Review online reference here: http://bit.ly/12DcrM
·· Abortion Debate: “The abortion debate refers to the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of abortion. The two main groups involved in the abortion debate are the self-described ‘pro-choice‘ movement (emphasizing the right of women to choose whether they wish to bring a fetus to term) and the self-described ‘pro-life‘ movement (emphasizing the right of the unborn child to be born).” Review online reference here: http://bit.ly/2euSAf.


Reference(s):

01. 101st Airborne at Little Rock Central High, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/iJ7AqI).
02. Ulysses S. Grant, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/110cKI). See also American Dream note above.
03. Orval Faubus, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/LpnYgs). See also Little Rock Nine, Armed Escort, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/LrdMEg).
04. Brown v. Board of Education, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/mK1Nv).
05. Plessy v. Ferguson, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/mMv0D).
06. Brown II, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP).
07. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (349 U.S. 294), Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP). See also Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, 377 U.S. 218 (1964), Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KI7JOI).
08. Circumventing Brown ruling by new state efforts to maintain segregation, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Lc7V5h). See also Brown II, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP).
09. Massive Resistance, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/G1WN6). See also Freedom of Choice: Most public schools remain segregated, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MXV2QI).
10. Ibid.
11. About the Pupil Placement Law, The King Center’s Blog (http://mysp.ac/Lpv8RL). See also THE SUPREME COURT: Presumption of Faith, Time Magazine, Monday, December 8th, 1958 (http://ti.me/8Pm08T).
12. Ibid.
13. Brown II, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP).
14. Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, Background (http://bit.ly/Nq4Php).
15. Brown II, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP). See also Smith, Bob (1965). They Closed Their Schools. University of North Carolina Press (http://bit.ly/LpyC6N).
16. Little Rock Nine, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/9KjkVR).
17. Orval Faubus, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/LpnYgs). See also Armed Escort, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MwiCxi).
18. The Lost Year, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/LJyg9Y).
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. Nixon, Richard Milhous (1913-1994), King Encyclopedia (http://bit.ly/LfSO9g).
24. Marting Luther King, Jr., And The Global Freedom Struggle, “The Social Organization of Nonviolence”, October 1959 (http://bit.ly/KqRZJD).
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.

27. Martin Luther King, Jr., “The Living King”, Ebony, Vol. 41, No. 3, January 1986, Page 63 (http://bit.ly/LzCLHI). See also Stride Toward Freedom by Martin Luther King, Jr.: “The Negro cannot win the respect of his oppressor by acquiescing; he merely increases the oppressor’s arrogance and contempt. Acquiescence is interpreted as proof of the Negro’s inferiority. The Negro cannot win respect of the white people of the South or the peoples of the world if he is willing to sell the future of his children for his personal and immediate comfort and safety.” (http://bit.ly/LccWus).

28. What is Personhood?, PersonhoodUSA (http://bit.ly/fuMEMw).
29. Donald J. Boudreaux and Dwight R. Lee , “Politics as the Art of Confined Compromise” (http://bit.ly/c0XxHS).
30. Salman Nizami, “No Society Can Survive Without Women, The Practice Of Female Foeticideis A Violation Of Human Rights”, published Wednesday, May 18th, 2011 (http://bit.ly/JUNpU9).

Environmental Products (5)

In Abortion, Politics on June 4, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (5)

Plessy versus Ferguson

The United States Supreme Court in 1896

The 1896-1897 U.S. Supreme Court Justices

The members of the United States Supreme Court, 1896–1897. Under Chief Justice Melville Fuller, this Court established the “Separate–But–Equal” doctrine in a 7 to 1 decision on Monday, May 18th, 1896. Courtesy of the U.S. Supreme Court. 1


Executive Summary

Plessy V. Ferguson 1896 Book CoverHomer Adolph Plessy was born on St. Patrick’s Day in 1862, when Union troops under General Benjamin Franklin Butler had freed Black Americans in New Orleans. At that time Black Americans could then marry whomever they chose, sit in any streetcar seat, and even attend integrated schools. However, as a thirty (30) year–old adult, Plessy found that those gains from the American Civil War (1862–1865) and the Radical Reconstruction of the South (1863–1877) were abolished after Union troops were withdrawn in the Republican Compromise of 18772

The Facts Of The Matter

According to the One-Drop Rule, any American with African ancestry (i.e., any person with even “one drop of black blood“) was considered a Black American. 3 So when Mr. Plessy, who was 1/8 Black American4 a Shoemaker, an insurance collector, a civil rights activist and a member of the Republican Party5 attempted to sit in an All–White railroad car, he was arrested for violating an 1890 Louisiana statute that provided for segregated “separate but equal” railroad accommodations. Black Americans using facilities not designated for their race were criminally liable under the statute. At trial with Justice John Howard Ferguson 6 presiding, Mr. Plessy was found guilty on the grounds that the law was a reasonable exercise of the state’s police powers based upon the social customs, usages, and the antebellum traditions in Louisiana.

The Question Before The Court

Can the states constitutionally enact legislation requiring persons of different races to use “separate but equal” segregated facilities?

The Answer And Decision From The Court

Yes. The states can constitutionally enact legislation requiring persons of different races to use “separate but equal” segregated facilities. Judgment for Ferguson (i.e., Plessy loses).

A Note Looking Forward

This case was overruled fifty–eight (58) years later by Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, 74 S. Ct. 686, 98 L. Ed. 873 (1954). 7

The Justices Of The United States Supreme Court in 1896

The judges and lawyers, — simply as such, I mean, — and all men of expediency, try this case by a very low and incompetent standard. They consider, not whether the Fugitive Slave Law is right, but whether it is what they call constitutional. Is virtue constitutional, or vice? Is equity constitutional, or iniquity? In important moral and vital questions like this, it is just as impertinent to ask whether a law is constitutional or not, as to ask whether it is profitable or not. They persist in being the servants of the worst of men, and not the servants of humanity. The question is not whether you or your grandfather, seventy years ago, did not enter into an agreement to serve the devil, and that service is not accordingly now due; but whether you will not now, for once and at last, serve God, in spite of your own past recreancy, or that of your ancestor, — by obeying that eternal and only just CONSTITUTION, which He, and not any Jefferson or Adams, has written in your being.” — Henry David Thoreau, from his 1854 essay entitled: “Slavery in Massachusetts” based on a speech he gave at an anti–slavery rally at Framingham, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1854, after the re–enslavement in Boston, Massachusetts of fugitive slave Anthony Burns. 8

The Majority Opinion

Henry Billings Brown Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court“That [the Separate Car Act] does not conflict with the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery … is too clear for argument … A statute which implies merely a legal distinction between the white and colored races — a distinction which is founded in the color of the two races, and which must always exist so long as white men are distinguished from the other race by color — has no tendency to destroy the legal equality of the two races … The object of the [Fourteenth A]mendment was undoubtedly to enforce the absolute equality of the two races before the law, but in the nature of things it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory to either.” — Henry Billings Brown, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court 9

The Lone Dissenting Opinion

John Marshall Harlan Associate Justice of the United States Supreme CourtOur Constitution is color–blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law … In my opinion, the judgment this day rendered will, in time, prove to be quite as pernicious as the decision made by this tribunal in the Dred Scott case … The present decision, it may well be apprehended, will not only stimulate aggressions, more or less brutal and irritating, upon the admitted rights of colored citizens, but will encourage the belief that it is possible, by means of state enactments, to defeat the beneficient purposes which the people of the United States had in view when they adopted the recent amendments of the Constitution.” — John Marshall Harlan, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court 10

Background Notes On The 1896 Justices

Stephen Johnson Field
Associate Justice Field was nominated to the United States Supreme Court by Abraham Lincoln (Republican). 11

Edward Douglass White, Jr.
Associate Justice White was nominated to the United States Supreme Court by Grover Cleveland (Democrat) in 1894, but was elevated to serve as the 9th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1910 by William Howard Taft (Republican). 12

Henry Billings Brown (Author of the Majority Opinion)
Associate Justice Brown hired a substitute to take his place in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and instead served as a federal prosecutor. 13

David Josiah Brewer
Plessy versus Ferguson was a 7 to 1 decision because Associate Justice Brewer, did not participate in the decision, due to the death of his daughter. 14

The 1896 Justices By The Numbers

  6  : Were Republicans
  6  : Were Nominated By Republican Presidents
  9  : Were Adults During The American Civil War (1861–1865)
  5  : Were Members Of A Mainstream Christian Denomination

The Appointment of Supremely Empty Promises

The real difference between the United States and other nations lies not in the worlds of the preamble to the Constitution, but in the fact that the substantive clauses of the Constitution are enforced by individuals independent of and not beholden to the elected branches.” — Judge Harold H. Greene, a federal judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia who was nominated by President James Earl “Jimmy” Carter, Jr. in 1978. 15


Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Cartoon by Stus.ComFor years political analysts have pointed out that the prevailing power of the presidency lies in the office holder’s United States Supreme Court appointments. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land, interpreting the “Supreme Law” of the land. As the Judicial Branch of our government, 16 the Supreme Court stands as the final word on matters of law and balances the powers of both the Legislative and Executive branches. Once the Supreme Court has made a decision, no other court can overturn or even review that decision. The average justice serves for fourteen (14) years and retires at age seventy-one (71). 17 Supreme Court justices are appointed for life so they never have to face re–election or make sure that their decisions please the president who appointed them. 18


Note To The Republican Party’s Leadership Team

It’s easy to say Supreme Court appointments are important and it’s easy to see how a President’s nomination(s) to the Supreme Court can profoundly impact our lives. However, historically and heinously these “supreme appointments” have harmed the lives of Black Americans. Regardless of the political party that nominated the Court’s justices, Black Americans, Native Americans and Disabled Americans have suffered by way of Supreme Court decisions. You cannot influence the hearts and minds of the members in oppressed communities, to vote for your Presidential candidate on the basis of future Supreme Court appointments. It just won’t work. We’ve heard that, seen that, been there and done that before.

Here’s A Grand Old Adage For The Grand Old Party’s Leadership

We don’t care how much you know — until we know how much you care.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Reference(s):

01. Rebecca Edwards, Vassar College “The Supreme Court in 1896” (http://bit.ly/MaB3uN). See also The Fuller Court.jpg, Wikimedia Commons (http://bit.ly/LdTKxm). This photograph has been photoshopped to reflect the image of Associate Justice Stephen J. Field from California instead of Associate Justice Joseph McKenna from California.
02. Plessy v. Ferguson, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/mMv0D).
03. One-drop rule, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KSACx).
04. Plessy v. Ferguson, Wiki Historia (http://bit.ly/M256W1).
05. Homer Plessy, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/bIvaop).
06. John Howard Ferguson, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/M1L2Px).
07. Brown v. Board of Education, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/mK1Nv).
08. The Writing Of Henry David Thoreau: with bibliographical introductions and full indexes, Volume 10 (http://bit.ly/KuHGtD).
09. Plessy v. Ferguson 1892, United States of American Chronology (http://bit.ly/Qyonf).
10. ibid.
11. Stephen Johnson Field, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KuL47N).
12. Edward Douglass White, Jr., Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Le4Xde).
13. Henry Billings Brown, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/gpPnnd).
14. David Josiah Brewer, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KZyivl).
15. Elected v. Appointed Judges; Which Selection Process is Best?, Landmark Supreme Court Decision, Margaret (Marnie) Brown and Professor Theodore Myhre, University of Washington (http://bit.ly/KIZNec). See also Harold H. Greene, Wikipedia http://bit.ly/eQdjja).
16. The Judicial Branch, The White House (http://1.usa.gov/bYqzsp).
17. Ed Grabianowski, “How Supreme Court Appointments Work”, HowStuffWorks, Inc. (http://bit.ly/bpq1I2).
18. Ibid.