Walter Hoye

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In Abortion, Politics on May 28, 2012 at 12:00 am
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The Compromise of 1877

The Republican Party Preferred Power

The Colored Line Is Broken

“Doubtless the relentless violence that the terror squads meted out on Black voters had something do to with the trend [above]. After the paramilitary campaign of 1868, there were few ‘open Radicals’ (Black or White Republicans) in Pulaski County.” 1

What Price The Presidency?

“What the South most needs is peace, and peace depends upon the supremacy of law. There can be no enduring peace, if the constitutional rights of any portion of the people are habitually disregarded. … All parts of the Constitution are sacred, and must be sacredly observed the parts that are new no less than the parts that are old. The moral and material prosperity of the Southern States can be most effectually advanced by a hearty and generous recognition of the rights of all, by all a recognition without reserve or exception.” — Rutherford B. Hayes, accepting the Republican Party Nomination for Presidency of the United States, Columbus, Ohio – July 8, 1876 2

Rutherford B. HayesIn 1876 the Republican Party had been hurt by financial corruption charges during the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant and thus needed a new candidate for the Presidency. 3 The safe liberal politics, party loyalty, and solid war record of the Governor of Ohio, made Rutherford Birchard Hayes the best hope for the Republican Party in the 1876 presidential election. 4 In the end Hayes lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. The count was 4,284,757 or 51% of the vote for Tilden against 4,033,950 or 48% for Hayes. 5 However, in order to win a candidate needed 185 electoral votes. 6 With 51% of the popular vote Tilden controlled 184 electoral votes and with 48% of the popular vote Hayes controlled 165. 7 Nevertheless, Hayes became the 19th President of the United States (1877-1881) in one of the most contentious, controversial, and morally bankrupt elections in American history. 8 When the dust was settled, and the now infamous Compromise of 1877 in the bag, Hayes had won the presidency by a single electoral vote (185-184). 9 Thomas Dartmouth -Daddy- Rice was a white man who performed in blackface.Yes, in 1876 the Republican Party controlled the White House and the Senate, but at what price? In the aftermath, the Compromise of 1877, gave power to a popular blackfaced Northerner named “Jim Crow” and legitimized by “de jury” his racist political career for the next eighty-nine (89) years. 10

The Republican Compromise Of 1877

“Reconstruction was ended by the Compromise of 1877, a morally flawed but historically consequential arrangement that put Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House and removed federal troops from the South. This compromise consisted of an agreement to drop the Negro problem from the agenda of national policy questions. Hayes called it the ‘let alone‘ policy. It was similar to what others before him had called ‘popular sovereignty‘ and to what others after him have called ‘benign neglect.’ In each case it meant the same thing: no issue of justice was at stake and, therefore, national policy was not required to address the issue. Whatever the Negro problem was, it was not a public problem.” — Alan B. Anderson and George W. Pickering, “Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago” 11

“One of the strangest things about the career of Jim Crow was that the system was born in the North and reached an advanced age before moving South in force.” — C. Vann Woodward, Author of “The Strange Career of Jim Crow” 12

The substance of the Compromise of 1877 13 stated that Southern Democrats would recognize Hayes as president with the understanding that Republicans would meet certain demands. Here’s the deal.

The Republican Party pledged to …

Remove All Federal Troops


Compromise Indeed!Removing federal troops from the South would end the Radical Reconstruction Era of the Republican Party and leave the “race problem” in the racist xenophobic hands of former Confederate (i.e., democratic-controlled) state legislatures. As such this clause enabled the Democratic Party to regain the political control of the South that they had lost at the end of the American Civil War. In most of these states Black Codes 14 were reintroduced, Jim Crow 15 was embraced and a large percentage of Black Americans lost the right to vote in future elections.

Rebuild The Southern Economy


This clause required legislation to be passed in order to industrialize the South and get the former Confederate States back on their feet after suffering such a terrible loss during the Civil War.

Fund The Texas and Pacific Railroad


Truce! Not A Compromise!This clause is where it gets interesting. The construction of a transcontinental railroad in the South was the goal of the “Scott Plan,” 16 proposed by Thomas Alexander Scott (the ‘Railroad Prince‘), an American businessman who at the time was the fourth president of what was the largest corporation in the world, the Pennsylvania Railroad. As a longtime friend of Samuel J. Tilden, 17 the Democratic Party’s presidential candidate, it was Scott who took the leading role in crafting the Compromise of 1877.

Appoint A Southern Democrat To Hayes’ Cabinet


This resulted in David M. Key, 18 the Democratic United States Senator from Tennessee becoming the Postmaster General. Since Hayes was so narrowly elected, this clause was not unusual or unexpected.

In exchange the Democrat Party pledged to …

Accept Hayes’ Presidency


The pledges were made, Hayes removed the troops, but the promises were soon broken. Over the next twenty (20) years, Black Americans in the South were systematically disfranchised until virtually none could vote. 19

Respect The Rights Of Black Americans


Of Course He Wants To Vote The Democratic Ticket!Ultimately, once the restraining forces of the Radical Republican Party were removed, Jim Crow seized power and shameless segregation ruled the day. Here’s a case in point: In Mississippi, with nothing to keep the South from her predilection for lynching Negroes, White paramilitary hate group members no longer felt the need to disguise themselves as they did in the hay days of the First Ku Klux Klan (1865-1869). 20 So complete was the Democratic Party’s victory, by way of the Compromise of 1877, that Adelbert Ames, the Republican Governor of Mississippi, fled the state rather than face impeachment charges by the newly elected Democratic legislature. 21

James WormleyThe Compromise of 1877, also known as the Wormley Agreement 22 was settled at the James Wormely Hotel in Washington D.C., at the corner of 15th and “H” Northwest on Saturday, February 26th, 1877. How fitting it is to note here that representatives of both the Republican and Democratic Parties used a propriety owned by a Black American in the North for the venue to reach an agreement that sealed and signaled the Republican Party’s abandonment of Black Americans in the South (Ecclesiastes 1:9). James Wormley 23 was the only Black American at the bedside of Abraham Lincoln when he died and in his defense, took no part in the decisions reached in the Compromise of 1877 and as a proprietor only provided the hall.

The Republican Compromise Of 2012

“If I have the opportunity to serve as our nation’s next president, I commit to doing everything in my power to cultivate, promote, and support a culture of life in America.” — Willard Mitt Romney, “My Pro-Life Pledge,” June 18th, 2011 24

Two Men Shaking HandsDuring the American Civil War, the national debt had increased by a staggering 4,000 percent (4000%). 25 After the war most White Northerners, preoccupied with the economic problems of unemployment and falling farm prices, were less concerned about violent acts of White Southerners against Black Americans in the South. So by 1870, “Waving The Bloody Shirt” 26 with the blood stains of carpetbaggers (i.e., Northerners who moved to the South) whipped by the Ku Klux Klan had lost its appeal. Furthermore, by 1876 it was clear that the North was satisfied that legislation such as the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments had solved the “race problem” in the South and wanted the Republican Party to move on from social issues to economic issues. 27 This sounds so very familiar to me.

RNC LogoToday, the Republican Party, wanting to move on from social issues to economic issues, 28 is facing the same temptation to satisfy the conscience of her socially conservative constituents with a Pro-Life presidential candidate that has pledged to limit abortion to only instances of rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. 29 This is the Republican Compromise of 2012. Limiting abortion with an executive order that reinstates the Mexico City Policy, with legislation that repeals, restricts, regulates, reduces and defunds abortion and with the appointment of Supreme Court justices who support reversing Roe v. Wade will not end abortion.

Until the Republican Party …

Progress, far from consisting in change, depends on retentiveness. When change is absolute there remains no being to improve and no direction is set for possible improvement: and when experience is not retained, as among savages, infancy is perpetual. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” — George Santayana, The Life of Reason (5 volumes, 1905-1906) 30

History is for human self-knowledge … the only clue to what man can do is what man has done. The value of history, then, is that it teaches us what man has done and thus what man is.” — Robin George Collingwood, The Life of Reason (5 volumes, 1905-1906) 31

Two Men Shaking HandsAbortion is a business, businesses are born with a product and customers are the lifeblood of businesses. Reducing abortion will not end abortion. Removing government subsidies from abortion providers will not end abortion. Reversing the current direction in Washington D.C. will not end abortion. Until the Republican Party embraces the biblical truth that only human life is sacred from the beginning of our biological development until death. Until the Republican Party understands that the only stronghold, strategy and sadistic sanctuary the abortion industrial complex can retreat to, in order to maintain their illegitimate air of credibility, is to portray itself as the only option caring enough to help poor women in communities of color. Until the Republican Party moves the hearts and minds of people in a way that meets the physical, spiritual and emotional needs of women and children helpless, homeless, hungry or without healthcare. Until the Republican Party learns to communicate compassion in a way that helps the poor realize that the golden promises of socialized healthcare only serve to hide the huge economic loss those social programs will cost their children and grandchildren in the future for putting these programs on the government’s credit card. Until the Republican Party fiscal conservatives unite with her social conservatives on the common ground of abortion’s $45 trillion dollar cost to our country 32 (please note, that’s roughly three times our national debt) and build a strong solidified party presence in America … 

History will repeat itself.

Brothers, we really need to talk.



01. Mark V. Wetherington “Plain Folk’s Fight: The Civil War and Reconstruction Piney Woods Georgia” (
02. Rutherford B. Hayes, “Letter Accepting the Republican Party Nomination for Presidency of the United States” Columbus, Ohio – July 8, 1876, The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center (
03. Ulysses S. Grant Presidential Administration Scandals, Wikipedia (
04. Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of The United States, The White House (
05. United States Presidential Election, 1876, Wikipedia (
06. United States Presidential Election, 1876, “Electoral disputes“, Wikipedia (
07. Electoral Commission (United States), Wikipedia (
08. Ibid.
09. Ibid.
10. C. Vann Woodward, “The Strange Career of Jim Crow” ( See also Kevin C. Murphy, “Orals Reading Notes: The Strange Career of Jim Crow, C. Vann Woodward” (
11. Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago, by Alan B. Anderson, George W. Pickering, University of Georgia Press, 528 pages (
12. The Origins of “Jim Crow” Laws, The 1898 Wilmington Institute for Education and Research
Understanding The Conflict and Its Origins (
13. Eric Hunter, The Compromise of 1877 ( See also Compromise of 1877, Wikipedia ( and “The Second Corrupt Bargain,” Wikipedia (
14. Black Codes (United States), Wikipedia ( See also See also JimCrowHistory.Org Glossary: Black Codes (
15. Ronald L. F. Davis, Ph. D., “Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay” ( See also “The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow“, Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) – Educational Broadcasting Corporation (
16. Thomas A. Scott, Wikipedia (
17. Re-Assessing Tom Scott, the ‘Railroad Prince’, by T. Lloyd Benson and Trina Rossman, Furman University (
18. David M. Key, Biography, Wikipedia (
19. American President: Rutherford B. Hayes, “End of Reconstruction,” The Miller Center (
20. Op. cit., Ronald L. F. Davis, Ph. D., “Creating White Supremacy from 1865 to 1890”.
21. Ibid.
22. Wormley Agreement, “African-American Business Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary,” by John N. Ingham, Lynne B. Feldman, Greenwood Publishing Group, Page 710 ( See also the “Infamous Final Scene of The Crime of 1876?” by Nicholas E. Hollis (
23. James Wormley, Wikipedia ( See also James Wormley Family Archive, PBS Antiques Roadshow (
24. My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011 (
25. Op. cit., American President: Rutherford B. Hayes, “Money and the Economy,” The Miller Center.
26. The Bloody Shirt: Terror After Appomattox, by Stephen Budiansky, Penguin Publishers, Prologue, Page 2 ( See also “Waving The Bloody Shirt, Wikipedia (
27. Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago, Alan B. Anderson, George W. Pickering, University of Georgia Press, Page 25 (
28. California GOP Out Of Sync With Most State Voters, by Joe Garofoli, San Francisco Chronicle, Posted Friday, February 24th, 2012 ( See also For Republican, Social Issues Are Losers, by Julian Zelizer, CNN Contributor, Posted Tuesday, February 28th, 2012 (
29. Op. cit., My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011.
30. George Santayana, The Life of Reason, Volume 1, Chapter XII, 1905 US (Spanish-Born) philosopher (1863 — 1952) (
31 Robin George Collingwood, a British philosopher and historian and author the book “The Idea of History” ( and ( See also “Learning from History” (
32. Dennis M. Howard, “Economic Impact of Abortion” The Movement for a Better America, Inc. (

Environmental Products (3)

In Abortion, Politics on May 21, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Ulysses S. Grant And The Invisible Empire

President Grant Was A Radical Republican Politican

1928 KKK Membership ID

Membership card of A.F. Handcock in the Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. This certifies that the bearer, whose signature appears hereon, has been found worthy of advancement in the mysteries of Klancraft. 1

Radical Republican President Grant Destroyed The First Klan

“My support for your organization must remain completely invisible.” — Confederate General Robert E. Lee, a member of the original Ku Klux Klan (KKK) whose statement inspired the Klan’s nickname: “Invisible Empire.” 2

Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States from 1869–1877. 3 As President he led the Radical Republicans in their effort to eliminate all remaining vestiges of Confederate nationalism, slavery and effectively destroyed the first incarnation of Ku Klux Klan in 18714 The First Klan founded in 1865 in Pulaski, Tennessee, by six veterans of the Confederate Army flourished in the South following the American Civil War and has been called America’s first true terrorist group. 5 Members utilized white costumes: robes, masks, and conical hats, designed to mystify, terrify and hide their true identities. 6 Today the Ku Klux Klan is splintered into several independent chapters with no apparent connections between them and is rightly classified as a hate group with an estimated membership between 3,000 and 5,000 as of 2012. 7

Former Black Slaves Endorsed The Radical Republican Party

“Yes, sir. [The Ku Klux Klan] is a protective political military organization. I am willing to show any man the constitution of the society. The members are sworn to recognize the government of the United States. It does not say anything at all about the government of Tennessee. Its objects originally were protection against Loyal Leagues and the Grand Army of the Republic; but after it became general it was found that political matters and interests could best be promoted within it, and it was then made a political organization, giving it’s support, of course, to the democratic party.” — former Confederate Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest, in a Cincinnati Commercial, August 28, 1868 Interview. 8

The Two PlatformsAfter the North’s victory and during Reconstruction, The State of Tennessee ratified the Fourteenth (14th) Amendment and gave Black American’s the right to vote. 9 As a result, Tennessee’s August gubernatorial election of 1867 was the first time in the Tennessee’s history that Black Americans would be allowed to vote. Actually and more significantly, this was the first time since President Abraham Lincoln’s Friday, January 1st, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation that Black American’s in the South would vote at all. Nevertheless, in the The Two Platformsdark background of election politics, former Confederate Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest who was serving as the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, was keeping his Klansmen in line in an effort to deflect the attention of the United States Military (i.e., Union soldiers) away from the Klan’s terrorist program that sought to restore White Supremacy by threats and violence, including murder, against freed Black Slaves and White Republicans. 10 Working with “Conservatives” (a coalition of Democrats and old-line Whigs) Lieutenant General Nathan Forrest tried to convince former Black Slaves that their The Two Platformsformer Slave Masters were their best friends and that they held their best interest at heart. 11 To the Klans surprise, the former Black Slaves in Tennessee did not believe them and overwhelmingly voted for the Radical Republicans. Knee deep in denial, the Ku Klux Klan believed that freed Black Slaves voted Republican because “carpetbaggers” (a derogatory term Southerners gave to Northerners who moved to the South) and “scalawags” (a derogatory term for Southern Whites who supported the Radical Republican Party) told them to and once freed from such, former Black Slaves would gladly return to being the “good niggers” they were before the American Civil War. 12 However, nothing was ever farther from the truth. Below is an explanation for why freed Black Slaves endorsed the Radical Republicans by a delegation of freed South Carolina Black Slaves.

By the Colored People of South Carolina to the Charleston Democratic Party
From the American Missionary, Vol. XII., October 1868, No. 10.

The White League and the Ku Klux Klan[You] derided the idea of granting us the right to vote; when your legislature met in 1865-66, you passed that infamous Black Code … Your laws provided for taking and binding-out our children and subjecting us to all manner of disabilities. We could not pursue any trade or calling in this State without written permission from some White man; we could not sell any article of barter without the consent first obtained from some magistrate. With all these facts before us, and your Negro Code before us … do you not see why we have been constrained to trust in strangers rather than to those who claim that they are our natural friends? Can you have the heart to ask colored men to vote for men who deny that they are capable of voting intelligently? Can you ask us to vote our liberties away forever? Can you ask us to sustain a party which is pledged to divest us of all privileges in law which we now enjoy? Can you hope that we will be frightened at your threat of extermination because we wish to enjoy the same rights in common with other men? We do not feel assured that to vote for your party will be advantageous to us and our children. 13

Confederal General and Grand Wizard Nathan Bedford ForrestAfter the 1867 Radical Republican victory in Tennessee the former Confederate Lieutenant General and then present Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard Nathan Bedford Forrest released his army of Klansmen and by October 1867 twenty-five (25) murders, thirty-five (35) assaults with intent to kill, eighty-three (83) assaults and batteries, four (4) rapes and four (4) arsons were reported to Major General Oliver Otis Howard of the United States Army (formerly the Union Army) in Tennessee. 14 Thank God for the former Commanding General of the Union Army and then present Radical Republican President Ulysses S. Grant.

Who Were The Radical Republicans?

“The war will not end until the government shall more fully recognize the magnitude of the crisis; until they have discovered that this is an internecine war in which one party or the other must be reduced to hopeless feebleness and the power of further effort shall be utterly annihilated. It is a sad but true alternative. … How, then, can the war be carried on so as to save the Union and constitutional liberty? Prejudices may be shocked, weak minds startled, weak nerves may tremble, but they must hear and adopt it. Universal emancipation must be proclaimed to all.” — Thadeus Stevens, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania’s 9th District (March 4th, 1859 – August 11th, 1868) 15

The Radical Republicans were a small group within the Republican Party from about 1854 until the end of Reconstruction in 1877. 16 They called themselves “radicals” because they strongly opposed slavery, distrusted ex-Confederate politicians and demanded harsh policies for Reconstruction 17 such as the:

Civil Rights Acts of 1866
Declared that people born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power are entitled to be citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. 18

Fourteenth (14th) Amendment
Provided a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the 1857 United States Supreme Court Dred Scott decision and installed the “Due Process Clause” which prohibited state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. 19

Force Act of 1870
Restricted the first wave of the Ku Klux Klan by banning the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent people from voting because of their race. The First Ku Klux Klan was all but eradicated within a year of federal prosecution. 20

Civil Rights Acts of 1871
Protected Black Americans from the Ku Klux Klan by providing a civil remedy for abuses then being committed in the South. 21

Are There Any Radical Republicans Today?

“I make no pretension to patriotism. So long as my voice can be heard on this or the other side of the Atlantic, I will hold up America to the lightning scorn of moral indignation. In doing this, I shall feel myself discharging the duty of a true patriot; for he is a lover of his country who rebukes and does not excuse its sins. It is righteousness that exalteth a nation while sin is a reproach to any people.” — Frederick Douglass, September 24, 1847 Speech on American Slavery Delivered in Syracuse, New York 22

The Radical Republican Convention of 1866It is not difficult for me to imagine what life would be like for Black America today without the righteous and right-minded efforts of the Radical Republicans of the past. Still, the question before us is: are there any Radical Republicans today? Today our country is split over the incontestable evil of abortion on demand and same-sex marriage. The answer will not be found in compromise legislation that restricts, regulates or reduces abortion or the promotion of homosexuality. The answer will be found in the hearts of men and women who are steadfastly committed to an uncompromised biblical worldview that can not only see the end of abortion on demand and same-sex marriage but also see a day where the needs of women, children and communities of color are met. The Radical Republicans of the past picked a platform to stand on and refused to settle for anything less than “equality of man before his Creator,” 23 even at the expense of their public office.

The Radical Republican Convention of 1866Nevertheless, I have long wondered what happened to the Radical Republicans of the past? It seems to me history suggests that after 1868 the “Radicals” lost interest in the fate of the Freedmen, became more concerned about fiscal policies, began to view Black Americans as “potentially dangerous to the economy because they might prove to be labor radicals” and jumped the Radical Republican ship to become members of the Liberal Republican camp. Furthermore, I cannot help but wonder if conservative fiscal policies that lead to the preservation of personal profit is where the heart and soul of the Republican Party is today? With the moral compass of our country broken and November quickly coming into view, I’ve been asked on more than one occasion: Are there any Radical Republicans today?

The truth is, I’m still looking.

Brothers, we really need to talk.


01. Ku Klux Klan membership card #402463. From the USF Tampa Library Special & Digital Collections (
02. Confederate General Robert E. Lee, From the Indiana Historical Research Foundation (
03. Ulysses S. Grant, The White House (
04. Ulysses S. Grant, Wikipedia (
05. Ku Klux Klan, The First Klan, Wikipedia (
06. Op. cit., Introduction to Ku Klux Klan, Wikipedia (
07. Ku Klux Kontraction, “How did the KKK lose nearly one-third of its chapters in one year?” by Brian Palmer, Posted Thursday, March 8, 2012 (
08. “Nathan Bedford Forrest: In Search of the Enigma,” authored by Eddy W. Davison, Daniel Foxx (
09. Blacks vote for the first time in the South, from the University of Richmond (
10. “The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America,” authored by Wyn Craig Wade, page 44. (
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. “The American missionary, Volume 12,” from the Congregational Home Missionary Society (
14. Op. cit., “The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America,” authored by Wyn Craig Wade, page 46. (
15. “The life of Thaddeus Stevens: A study in American political history, especially in the period of the civil war and reconstruction,” authored by James Albert Woodburn, page 178. (
16. Radical Republicans, authored by John Simkin (BA, MA, MPhil), Spartacus Educational (
17. “Reconstruction of the South,” Wikipedia (
18. Civil Rights Act of 1866, Wikipedia (
19. Fourteenth Amendment, Wikipedia (
20. Force Act of 1870, Wikipedia (
21. Civil Rights Acts of 1871, Wikipedia (
22. Frederick Douglass (
23. Thaddeus Stevens Biography, Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology ( See also Thaddeus Stevens: Statesman, Philanthropist, Visionary (

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In Abortion, Politics on May 14, 2012 at 2:27 am
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Andrew Johnson And Reconstruction

Was Andrew Johnson A Union Man In Name Only?

Andrew Johnson Impeachment Ticket

On Monday, February 24th, 1868, the House impeached Andrew Johnson 126 to 47. On Tuesday, May 26th, 1868, by a margin of one vote, the Senate acquitted Johnson, and he served the duration of Abraham Lincoln’s term. 1

Events Leading Up To Impeachment

“‘The sovereignty of the States’ is the language of the Confederacy, and not the language of the Constitution. The latter contains the emphatic words — This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made or which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.” — Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States of America: 1865-1869. First Annual Message, Monday, December 4th, 1865. 2

Until the impeachment of William Jefferson “Bill” Clinton that would come one hundred and thirty (130) years later, 3 Andrew Johnson’s impeachment was the first and only presidential impeachment in the history of the United States and it provided some of the most dramatic events of its time. 4 The stage was set. Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated. The American Civil War had ended. The Confederacy was defeated. Chattel Slavery in America was finally over. Reconstruction in the South was underway and the tension between congress and the oval office was at an all time high. 5President Andrew Johnson With Signature

So What Happened?

Andrew Johnson, was the only Southern senator not to resign his seat during the Civil War. In 1864 Johnson was nominated as the vice presidential candidate on the National Union Party ticket. When Lincoln was re-elected on Tuesday, November 8th, 1864, Johnson served as Vice President of the United States of America from Saturday, March 4th, 1865 to Saturday, April 15th, 1865 (the day Lincoln was assassinated). 6 While Johnson was an out spoken War Democrat from the South (Tennessee), a tireless critic of the South’s secession and a staunch supporter of Lincoln’s military policies, he was a Union man in name only as he remained pro-slavery. 7 So the drama begins. Right after the assassination of Lincoln and while congress was in recess, Johnson implemented his own version of Reconstruction that allowed Southern states to re-form their civil governments via routine pardons and established “Black Codes” which limited the basic human rights and civil liberties of Black Americans in a way that maintained antebellum slavery under a different name. 8

Black Codes” were rooted in the “Slave Codes” that were in effect before the defeat of the South. The justification for chattel slavery in America was that Black Americans were property, not persons, and as such, they had few, if any, legal rights. The “Slave Codes” were necessary and effective tools of the South against slave unrest and uprisings. Under the enforcement of “Slave Codes” corporal punishment was widely and harshly employed. 9

When Johnson abandoned his originally stricter plan for Reconstruction, 10 the heretofore unprecedented fight to hold a sitting President of the United States of America accountable was on.

Holding The President Accountable (1865-1869)

“This is a country for White men, and by God, as long as I am President, it shall be a government for White men.” — Andrew Johnson, in a letter written to the Governor Thomas C. Flecther of Missouri, according to the Cincinnati Enquirer. 11

On Monday, July 16th, 1866 Congress overrode President Johnson’s veto and the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill which provided shelter and provision for former slaves and protection of their rights in court became law. 12 On Saturday, March 2nd, 1867 Congress passed the First Reconstruction Act. 13 President Andrew Johnson With SignatureOn Sunday, March 3rd, 1867, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act which stripped President Johnson of the power to remove federal officials without approval from the Senate. 14 On Saturday, March 23rd, 1867 Congress passed the Second Reconstruction Act and in response to the first edition of the Ku Klux Klan established a military Reconstruction program to enforce political and civil rights of Black Americans and white Republicans in the South. 15 On Monday, April 9th, 1866 Congress overrode President Johnson’s veto and the Civil Rights Act which defined all persons born in the U.S. as citizens. 16 On Thursday, July 9th, 1868 Congress enacted the Fourteenth (14th) Amendment to the United States Constitution which authorized the federal government to protect the rights of all citizens17 With the exception of the Fourteenth (14th) Amendment each of the above pieces of “landmark legislation” was passed over President Johnson’s opposition and veto. 18 On Monday, February 24th, 1868 the United States House of Representatives impeached President Johnson in accordance with Article Two of the United States Constitution. 19 On Tuesday, May 26th, 1868, after an intense trial, President Johnson was acquitted by the United States Senate by a single vote. Johnson served the remainder of Lincoln’s term. 20 After the Tuesday, November 3rd, 1868 presidential election of Ulysses S. Grant, President Johnson, in one of his last official acts, granted unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on Christmas Day (Friday, December 25th, 1868). 21

President Barack Obama Kept His Word To Planned Parenthood

The Planned Parenthood Action Fund is proud to endorse Barack Obama for president of the United States,” said Action Fund president Cecile Richards. “He is a passionate advocate for women’s rights, and has a long and consistent record of standing up for women’s health care. As president, he will improve access to quality health care for women, support and protect a woman’s right to choose, support comprehensive sex education to keep our young people healthy and safe, and invest in prevention programs, including family planning services and breast cancer screenings.” — Cecile Richards, President of the Planned Parenthood Action Fund, the political and advocacy arm of Planned Parenthood Federation of America. 22

As president I’ll make sure women have access to affordable health care, including affordable reproductive services. I thank you for your endorsement and your leadership.” — United States Senator Barack Hussein Obama II 23

I am proud to have President Obama on our side … President Obama gets it, and he hasn’t stopped fighting since his first day in office. He knows how important women’s health is, and he respects the right of every woman to make her own medical decisions … That’s why I hope you’ll join me in sending a message of support to President Obama today. And because the president is such a strong ally for women’s health and Planned Parenthood, he has a message for you, too.” — Cecile Richards, President of Planned Parenthood Federation of America. 24

On Monday, July 7th, 2008 Planned Parenthood, endorsed Senator Barack Hussein Obama II for President as their choice for President of the United States of America. Below is why in their own words: 25

  1. Senator Obama has received a 100 percent rating from the Planned Parenthood Action Fund. As a State Senator in Illinois and a United States Senator, Senator Obama has a strong voting record when it comes to women’s health.

  2. Senator Obama co-sponsored multiple pieces of legislation that focused on common sense prevention measures to reduce the number of unintended pregnancies, including the Prevention First Act; the Communities of Color Teen Pregnancy Prevention Act; and the Responsible Education About Life (REAL) Act.

  3. Senator Obama supported affordable quality health care, including family planning services, breast cancer screenings, and other preventive health care that Planned Parenthood provides.

  4. Senator Obama supported a woman’s right to choose and was a co-sponsor of the Freedom of Choice Act, which would codify and protect a woman’s right to choose.

  5. Senator Obama supported expanding access to affordable birth control and co-sponsored the Prevention Through Affordable Access Act, which would restore affordable birth control to safety-net clinics and college health clinics.

  6. Senator Obama championed family planning access for women worldwide and voted to repeal the destructive global gag rule, which bars any U.S. aid for international family planning organizations that perform or promote abortions.

  7. Senator Obama supported medically accurate comprehensive sex education to keep our young people healthy and safe, and voted in favor of legislation to fund medically accurate sex education.

As President, Barack Hussein Obama II has kept his word to Planned Parenthood. His record (click here) speaks clearly for itself. 26 Time and time again, our President has proven that he can be trusted to back abortion on demand and be held accountable for using his office to promote Planned Parenthood’s agenda. 27

Holding The President Accountable Today

“If I have the opportunity to serve as our nation’s next president, I commit to doing everything in my power to cultivate, promote, and support a culture of life in America.” — Willard Mitt Romney, “My Pro-Life Pledge,” June 18th, 2011 28

Former Massachusetts Governor Willard Mitt Romney is likely to be the Republican Party’s 2012 candidate for President. 29 He will be running against the Democratic Party’s incumbent President, Barack Hussein Obama II, in the 2012 election for the presidency of the United States of America. Willard Mitt Romney has given his Pro-Life Pledge to the Pro-Life movement. Here it is … 

“My Pro-Life Pledge” By Willard Mitt Romney 30

… I Will …

  1. Limit abortion to only instances of rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother.

  2. Support the reversal of Roe v. Wade.

  3. Reinstate the Mexico City Policy.

  4. Repeal Obamacare.

  5. Support the defunding of Planned Parenthood.

  6. Advocate for and support a Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act to protect unborn children who are capable of feeling pain from abortion.

  7. Support the Hyde Amendment, which broadly bars the use of federal funds for abortions.

  8. Appoint judges who adhere to the Constitution and the laws as they are written, not as they want them to be written.

  9. Do everything in my power to cultivate, promote, and support a culture of life in America.

Willard Mitt Romney is the only 2012 Republican Party presidential candidate that did not sign the Personhood Pledge (click here). 31 I suspect Willard Mitt Romney personally believes that the child in the womb is a “person” but establishing legal personhood for the child in the womb would not allow him to support abortion on demand in the case of exceptions. It’s been my experience that what you believe personally is not as important as what you believe the law should be. [See Note]

It’s early, but according to the first Gallup poll of the 2012 general election campaign, Willard Mitt Romney has the support of 47% of the registered voters nationwide, while President Barack Hussein Obama II has 45%. 32 This is good news. With his eyes on the United States Supreme Court, Willard Mitt Romney has already formed a judicial search committee for presidential appointments Life Tape Glasses With The Supreme Court Reflectedchaired by both Mary Ann Glendon and Robert Bork. 33 Mary Ann Glendon was selected by Pope John Paul II to head the Vatican delegation to the Beijing women’s convention and teaches Constitutional Law at Harvard Law School. 34 Robert Heron Bork is a former Yale Law School professor, Solicitor General, Acting Attorney General, and Judge for the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Both Glendon and Bork are publicly critical of Roe35 This too is good news. On Monday night, May 7th, 2012, Rick Santorum endorsed Willard Mitt Romney via email saying: “The task will not be easy. It will require all hands on deck if our nominee is to be victorious. Governor Romney will be that nominee and he has my endorsement and support to win this the most critical election of our lifetime.” 36 This is more good news. However, it’s still better news to know that the Pro-Life movement has committed herself to unequivocally supporting Willard Mitt Romney and holding him accountable for fulfilling his Pro-Life Pledge37

As such, the question before us today is twofold:

  1. As President will Mitt Romney keep his Pro-Life pledge?

  2. How will the Pro-Life movement hold President Mitt Romney accountable?

As it was in 1865 with President Andrew Johnson with the life of my people at stake, so it will be in 2013 with President Willard Mitt Romney with the lives of our children at stake. I believe Willard Mitt Romney will keep his word. However, will the Republican Party today hold President Willard Mitt Romney accountable for keeping his Pro-Life Pledge like the Radical Republicans of the past kept President Andrew Johnson accountable for staying the course?

I hope so.

“Do not let us mistake necessary evils for good.” — C.S. Lewis 38

Brothers, we really need to talk.

· Martin Luther King, Jr., “It may be true that the law cannot make a man love me, but it can keep him from lynching me, and I think that’s pretty important.” Quoted in The Wall Street Journal, Tuesday, November 13th, 1962. See also Dr. Martin Luther King’s 1963 Western Michigan University speech ( 

01. Andrew Johnson, “American President: A Reference Resource”, The Miller Center at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (
02. “Andrew Johnson, “First Annual Message,” Monday, December 4th, 1865. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. (
03. Impeachment of Bill Clinton, as the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, was impeached by the House of Representatives on two charges, one of perjury and one of obstruction of justice, on December 19, 1998. Wikipedia (
04. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, as the 17th President of the United States, Andrew Johnson was the first sitting United States president to be impeached. Wikipedia (
05. Ibid. (
06. President Andrew Johnson, Wikipedia (
07. Op. cit., American President A Reference Resource, (
08. Black Code Definition, by Lloyd Duhaime, Barrister, Solicitor, Attorney and Lawyer, “Statutes passed by pro-slavery, Southern states of the USA before and after the Civil War, to limit the civil rights of slaves or freed slaves. All black codes were eventually repealed.” (
09. The American Black Codes 1865-1866, The George Washington University, Washington D.C. (
10. Hans Louis Trefousse, “Andrew Johnson: A Biography” (1989), the “Unionist President,” Chapter 11 (
11. Ibid. Johnson quote on page 236 (
12. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Wikipedia ( See also The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Mr. Kash’s History Page ( Jeff Kash is a history teacher at Madison Middle School in North Hollywood, California. The opinions expressed on Jeff’s website are his and not necessarily those of the Los Angeles Unified School District or Madison Middle School.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Planned Parenthood Action Fund Endorses Barack Obama, Planned Parenthood Action Fund, Inc. (
23. Planned Parenthood endorses Obama, POLITICO, Capitol News Company LLC (
24. I am proud to have President Obama on our side, Planned Parenthood president Cecile Richards said, saying she is “sending the president a message of support today.” (
25. Planned Parenthood Action Fund Endorses Barack Obama, Planned Parenthood Action Fund, Inc. (
26. President Barack Obama’s Pro-Abortion Record: A Pro-Life Compilation, by Steve Ertelt, LifeNews.Com, Washington, D.C., November 17th, 2012 at 8:31 A.M. (EST) (
27. Obama Praises Planned Parenthood Abortion Biz in New Video, Steve Ertelt, LifeNews.Com, Washington, D.C., March 29th, 2012 at 10:27 A.M. (EST) (
28. My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011 (
29. Romney, Santorum meet in Pittsburgh to discuss Republican Party, WPXI.Com of the Cox Media Group, Friday, May 4th, 2012 (
30. My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011 (
31. Personhood Republican Presidential Candidate Pledge, PersonhoodUSA, Submitted by Keith Ashley on Thursday, December 15, 2011 ( See also “Romney is GOP Holdout On Personhood Pledge, Former Massachusetts Governor also refuses to attend Pro-Life debates”, (
32. First general election Gallup poll shows Romney edging Obama by Michael A. Memoli, Los Angeles Times, April 16, 2012 (
33. Austin Ruse, has headed the Catholic Family and Human Rights Institute (C-FAM) since shortly after its creation in the summer of 1997 and since 2000 has held the title of President. This information is from an email from Austin Ruse dated Wednesday, April 11th, 2012 in my personal collection. (
34. Mary Ann Glendon Wikipedia (
35. Robert Heron Bork Wikipedia (
36. Rick Santorum’s endorsement of Mitt Romney email ( See also Maeve Reston’s Monday, May 7th, 2012 Los Angeles Times article (
37. My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011 (
38. Do not let us mistake necessary evils for good. by C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) English writer and scholar, “The Weight of Glory,” Chapter Seven: “Membership,” Read to the Society of St. Alban and St. Sergius, Oxford, February 10, 1945, Publisher HarperOne; HarperCollins R edition (March 20, 2001), p. 162 (

Environmental Products (1)

In Abortion, Politics on May 7, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (1)

George Washington And Slavery

Was Slavery A Product Of Its Environment?

George Washington The Farmer


Slavery In The General’s House (1775-1783)

It is foremost in my thoughts, to desire you will be particularly attentive to my Negros in their sickness; and to order every Overseer positively to be so likewise; for I am sorry to observe that the generality of them, view these poor creatures in scarcely any other light than they do a draught horse or Ox; neglecting them as much when they are unable to work; instead of comforting & nursing them when they lye on a sick bed. I lost more negros last winter than I had done it 12 or 15 years before, put them altogether. If their disorders are not common, and the mode of treating them plain, simple and well understood, send for Doctor Craik in time. In the last stage of the complaint it is unavailing to do it. It is incurring an expense for nothing.” — George Washington, a letter written to Anthony Whitting, his Mount Vernon plantation manager in 1792. 1

George Washington At HomeGeorge Washington was a slave-owner for the majority of his life. Early in life Washington inherited ten (10) slaves when he was an eleven (11) year old boy. 2 By the date of his death he owned more than 300 slaves at his Mount Vernon residence including forty (40) leased from his neighbor and not including the 153 “dower slaves” which belonged to Martha by way of first husband, Daniel Parke Custis. 3 Like all other plantation owners that had large sums of money invested in slavery, Washington’s slaves worked all day unless they were injured or ill 4. Legally Washington’s slaves could be whipped for trying to escape or for any other violation of the law. 5Bottom-Line Economics” demanded that slaves were fed, clothed, and housed as inexpensively as possible, in conditions that can only be described at best as meager.

Slavery In The President’s House (1790-1797)

“When a slave named Paul ran away in March 1795 with a neighbor’s slave, George Washington, concerned about his name surfacing in northern papers, advised William Pearce (his plantation manager) to avoid any publicity and wrote: “It is highly probable Paul has left these parts (by water or land). If Mr. Dulany is disposed to pursue any measure for the purpose of recovering his man, I will join him in the expence so far as it may respect Paul; but I would not have my name appear in any advertisement, or other measure, leading to it.” — George Washington, his March 22, 1795 Philadelphia letter to William Pearce. 6

George Washington and William Lee, his enslaved personal servant, who for many years spent more time in Washington's presence than any other man.Slavery was legal in all thirteen (13) of the American Colonies before the American Revolutionary War. 7 Slaves were considered valuable property and as a large plantation owner Washington had large sums of money invested slave labor. 8 However, by 1780 and largely by the efforts of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society (PAS), 9 Pennsylvania became the first former colony to abolish slavery. While the law did not free slaves immediately, it did offer gradual emancipation. By law slaves were registered as property, so the children born of a registered Pennsylvania slave mother after the law was in force had the legal status of indentured servants when they reached the age of twenty-eight (28). 10 So legal slavery continued in Pennsylvania until 1847. 11 As the first President of the United States of America, George Washington lived in Philadelphia in the President’s House from 1790 to 1797. 12 To avoid having Pennsylvania laws apply to his slaves, Washington maintained his residency in Virginia by making sure that neither he nor his slaves spent the six (6) continuous months necessary to establish legal residency in Philadelphia. 13

Slavery In The President’s Politics (1790-1797)

“I wish from my soul that the legislature of this State could see the policy of a gradual abolition of slavery.” — George Washington, in a letter to his nephew and private secretary, Lawrence Lewis. 14

George Washington, the first President of United States of AmericaAfter the American Revolutionary War George Washington personally rejected the institution of slavery, yet while serving as the President of the United States he supported the 1790 Naturalization Act approved by the First Congress 15 that incorporated foreigners as United States citizens, but provided for naturalization only of whites 16 and authorized emergency financial and military relief to French slave owners in Haiti to suppress the slave rebellion of 179117 Washington also signed the compromise Northwest Territory Act that banned slavery in that territory, but did not free those that were already slaves. Further still, in 1793 Washington signed the Fugitive Slave Law that gave slaveholders the right to recapture runway slaves even in free states that had abolished slavery. 18

≡ Yes, slavery was indeed a product its environment!

Was George Washington A Product Of His Environment?

· “Prior to the great Revolution, the great majority … of our people had been so long accustomed to the practice and convenience of having slaves that very few among them even doubted the propriety and rectitude of it.” — George Washington, to the English Anti-Slavery Society in June 1788 19

· “Were it not that I am principled against selling Negroes … I would not in twelve months from this date be possessed of one as a slave.” — George Washington, in a letter to Alexander Spotswood on Sunday, November 23rd, 179420

· “It is demonstratively clear that on this Estate (Mount Vernon) I have more working Negroes by a full [half] than can be employed to any advantage in the farming system.” — George Washington, in a letter to Robert Lewis on Sunday, August 18th, 179921

· “[H]alf the workers I keep on this estate would render me greater net profit than I now derive from the whole.” — George Washington, in a letter to Robert Lewis on Sunday, August 18th, 179922

· “To sell the overplus [of slaves] I cannot, because I am principled against this kind of traffic in the human species. To hire them out is almost as bad because they could not be disposed of in families to any advantage, and to disperse [break up] the families I have an aversion.” — George Washington, in a letter to Robert Lewis on Sunday, August 18th, 179923

George Washington Praying At Valley ForgeGeorge Washington was born into a wealthy family that profited from the slave labor on their tobacco plantations. By 1732, the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia was little more than a slave society, a world where the right to own slaves was protected and the right to emancipate slaves was prohibited by law. 24 ≡ Yes, George Washington was a product of his environment, however, while Washington was a slave-owner, he was also a devoted husband to Martha, a decorated general who fought for freedom in the service of Virginia’s provincial militia, a commander-in-chief who “wrenched the rights of all Americans from the tyrannical grasp of the British” 25 in the service of the Continental Army, a skilled facilitator who presided over the writing of the our Constitution and a widely respected leader who became our first President. 26 Above all George Washington was a praying man, wholly committed to his Christian faith, however, therein lies the crux of the matter. George Washington PrayingWith the blessings that come from having a wife, family and friends, Washington chose to work within a government whose majority embraced or at the very least, tacitly consented to, the incontestable evil of slavery. With a career that can only come from the blessings of a divine appointment, Washington retired from serving a system entirely based on the “art of compromise” where in the “final solution” 27 participants are expected to resign their conscience in the interest of practicality, profit and peace. ≡ Yes, George Washington was indeed a product of his environment, but frankly, so are we. So long as profits trump purpose, power trumps peace, politics trumps people, victory trumps values, race trumps religion and preservation trumps principle we are all the products of our environment.

“Be Of Good Cheer; It Is I; Be Not Afraid!”

“And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. And when the disciples saw Him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear. But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. And Peter answered Him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And He said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth His hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased.” — Matthew 14:25-32 (King James Version) 28

Jesus Saving Peter In Matthew 14:25-32.Like it or not, there is such a thing as evil. Lurking in the depths of our souls is an evil that pushes us beyond the white sandy shores of safety into the dark, deep and dangerously cold and open waters of uncertainty, vagueness and soul searching questions. Questions such as … Will God save us, if we nonviolently resist a law that is immoral, as in the case of the abolitionist resisting the 1793 Fugitive Slave Law  29 by refusing to turn over escaped slaves to authorities? Will God take care of us, if we nonviolently resist laws in order to physically lay claim to God-given rights, such as freedom, equality and life itself, as in the case of Black Americans illegally protesting during the Civil Rights movement? 30 Will God protect us, if we nonviolently resist laws in order to change immoral policies endorsed by our government such as slavery, segregation, euthanasia and abortion on demand? These are the kind of questions that flood our minds and invade our very soul as we choose to live out our faith in Christ on earth.

Jesus Saving Peter In Matthew 14:25-32.Today, we’re at a point where our babies are dismembered in their own mother’s womb on demand, our elderly are gravely threatened with euthanasia and our religious freedom is at stake. What is it going to take for us to realize that the “art of compromise” is not the means to a righteous end? The Bible says Peter walked on water, but when the waters got high and the lightning started to flash and the winds began to blow Peter feared for his life and cried out “Lord save me!” The Bible also says “and immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him.” In my opinion, even though the troubled waters of our world are deep and dark, like Peter, Christ is bidding us to walk on water with Him. I believe it’s time for us to stop being afraid of the deep and the dark, so the Holy Spirit can move us far beyond the “art of compromise” as an expression of our holy and righteous indignation. I believe God is calling us to join Him walking on the water. If we resist civil government: Will God save us? Will God take care of us? Will God protect us? Well, He’s already caught Peter and saved him, so that answers my question. What answer are you waiting for?

Brothers, we really need to talk.

·  Many, many thanks to David Barton of Wallbuilders. “WallBuilders is an organization dedicated to presenting America’s forgotten history and heroes, with an emphasis on the moral, religious, and constitutional foundation on which America was built — a foundation which, in recent years, has been seriously attacked and undermined. In accord with what was so accurately stated by George Washington, we believe that ‘the propitious [favorable] smiles of heaven can never be expected on a nation which disregards the eternal rules of order and right which heaven itself has ordained.'” You can visit Wallbuilder’s highly recommended website by clicking here:

01. “George Washington, “The Writings of George Washington: 1790-1784,” by Goeorge Washington ( See also Anthony Whitting, October 14th, 1792, Washington Papers, Library of Congress. “That Species of Property”, Washington’s Role in the Controversy Over Slavery by Dorothy Twohig (
02. George Washington And slavery, “Early Life,” Wikipedia (
03. Ibid.
04. Ibid.
05. Ibid.
06. John C. Fitzpatrick, ed. “The Writings of George Washington,” Washington, D.C., 1931-44., Volume 34:154. Letter to William Pearce, March 22, 1795. (
07. Laurie Halse Anderson, Forge, “The Sequel to the National Book Award Finalist “Chains”, (
08. Edward Lawler, Jr., “Slavery in the President’s House” (
09. Richard S. Newman, “The Pennsylvania Aboliton Society Restoring a Group to Glory” (
10. Edward Lawler, Jr., “Slavery in the President’s House” (
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Martin Luther King, Jr., Coretta Scott King, Vincent Harding, “Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos Or Community?,” The King Legacy in association with Intellectual Properties Management, Inc., page 80. (
15. Naturalization Act of 1790, Wikipedia ( See also “A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875” (
16. Ibid.
17. George Washington And slavery, “Early Life,” Wikipedia (
18. Ibid.
19. David Barton, “George Washington, Thomas Jefferson & Slavery in Virginia,” Wall Builders (
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid.
24. George Washington, Wikipedia ( See also Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, page 28. (
25. George Washington And slavery, “Early Life,” Wikipedia ( See also George Washington, Wikipedia (
26. Dorothy Twohig, The Papers of George Washington, “‘That Species of Property’ Washington’s Role in the Controversy Over Slavery” (
27. The “Final Solution,” Wikipedia (
28. Matthew 14:25-32 (
29. George Washington And slavery, “Early Life,” Wikipedia (
30. African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968), Wikipedia (