Walter Hoye

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Personhood: Defining Humanity

In Abortion, Personhood on December 26, 2011 at 2:18 am

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Personhood: Defining Humanity

"A philosophy of reason will define a human being as one which demonstrates self-awareness, volition and rationality. Thus it should be recognized that not all men are human." — Winston L. Duke, “The new biology”, in Reason Magazine, “Parahuman Reproduction, Android Cloning, The New Biology, Artificial Synthesis, Genetic Engineering, Brain Transfers”, August 1972. ·

Definitions Define Us

VisualThesaurus.ComAccording to Dictionary.Com, the most-visited and most trusted online dictionary in the world and for my purposes conveniently located in Oakland, California, a “human being” is “[1] any individual of the genus Homo, especially a member of the species Homo Sapiens. [2] a person, especially as distinguished from other animals or as representing the human species. [3] a member of any of the races of Homo sapiens; person; man, woman, or child” 1 Visual Theesarus: Human BeingBiblically speaking, God created the first human being 2,3 and by way of the Strong’s Dictionary the word man (אָדָם) used in Genesis 1:26 is ‘adam aw-dawm’, an individual or the species, mankind (i.e. a human being). 4

Definitions Define Who We Are

The VisualThesaurus.Com is an online and interactive tool that reveals the connections between words and meaning, the term “human being” can be conceptualized as illustrated in figure 1 on the left. 5 Here we find a world of words connected by solid lines that have the same meaning (i.e., synonyms). Their meanings are in turn represented by circles, color-coded to indicate the part of our speech, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs that they belong to. Antonyms or words that express opposite concepts and are visually connected by dashed red lines.

Definitions Define What We Are

If we take advantage of the power the VisualThesaurus.Com and click on the term “human” we discover a stunning and captivating visual description of our humanity expressed in and by our own words.

Visual Theesarus: Human

Again, words connected by solid lines have the same meaning and words connected by dashed red lines such as the term nonhuman express the exact opposite meaning. If definitions are linguistic expressions of ourselves, who we are and specifically who is and by default who is not among us, then regardless of our ability to demonstrate “self-awareness, volition and rationality” clearly all of us are human.

Definitions Define What’s Legal

Visual Theesarus: PersonLegally, a person has been recognized by the law as a person, not because he or she is human, but because rights and duties have been ascribed to him or her by those who have already been ascribed such rights and duties. 6 This, in part, explains why women, children, non-landowners, minorities, slaves, etc., have been legally oppressed over the years. Right now, the child inside the womb is fighting for such rights and duties. Without such rights and duties (i.e., personhood a term used by Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court Harry Andrew Blackmun in Roe v. Wade 7) the child inside the womb, an innocent human being, can be killed, in all 50 states, through all nine months of pregnancy, for virtually any reason at all, even though it is illegal to take the life of an innocent human being.

Definitions Define The Real Question

VisualThesaurus.ComPersonhood clearly defines humanity by recognizing human beings as “created in the image of God” from the beginning of their biological development, without exceptions and the recipients of the God given right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness as legal persons. Today, the question is not whether there is room in the linguistic world above for the child inside the womb. Clearly there is room. Clearly the child inside the womb is human. Clearly Winston L. Duke is wrong. The real question is, why is abortion on demand still legal? If Margaret Sanger, 8 the founder of Planned Parenthood, the largest abortion provider in the United States of America with 85 independent affiliates operating 820 abortion clinics around the country, 9 today’s United States Supreme Court Justices, 10 the entire Pro-Life community, and the holy Body of Christ can admit that abortion takes the life of an innocent human being … I cannot help but wonder … what reason can we “the people” outside the womb, give God for tacitly consenting to the shedding of innocent blood 11 within the womb?

Brothers, we really need to talk.

· Special thanks to Dianne N. Irving, M.A., Ph.D. for her very excellent research and work entitled: “Any Human Cell — iPS, Direct Programmed, Embryonic, Fetal or Adult — Can Be Genetically Engineered to Asexually Reproduce New Human Embryos for Purposes of Reproduction (“Infertility”) (
01. Dictionary.Com’s mission is to “redefine reference and learning in the context of emerging technology while preserving the painstaking traditions of expertise and integrity that everyone expects from a dictionary.” (
02. Genesis 1:26,27 says: “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness … So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.” (King James Version)
03. Genesis 2:7 says: “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.” (King James Version).
04. The Strong’s Dictionary is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822-1894) and first published in 1890. It is an exhaustive cross-reference of every word in the KJV back to the word in the original text.(
05. VisualThesaurus.Com “is an interactive dictionary and thesaurus which creates word maps that blossom with meanings and branch to related words. Its innovative display encourages exploration and learning.” (
06. (
07. “Roe v. Wade, 410 U. S. 113 (1973)”. U.S. Supreme Court.
08. Sanger, Margaret (1938). Margaret Sanger, An Autobiography. New York: W. W. Norton. p. 217.
09. Wikipedia, Planned Parenthood (
10. “The Place of Women on the Court”,, Thursday, July 9th, 2009 (
11. Proverb 6:16,17, “These six things does the LORD hate: yea, seven are an abomination unto him. A proud look, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood.” (King James Version) (

Personhood: Legal Tactics

In Abortion, Personhood on December 19, 2011 at 1:31 am

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Personhood: Legal Tactics

“A rift over legal tactics has split the Pro-Life movement” 1

Vision, Strategy, and Tactics

"Where there is no vision, the people perish." — King Solomon (Proverbs 29:18)

Legal EyesVision is defined as your dream of the future. Strategy is defined as your long-range plan to make the dream happen so it may need to change in response to internal or external conditions, but strategy changes should only happen with considerable thought. Tactics are defined as the specific actions you will take to achieve your strategy. Tactics are the most flexible. If a tactic isn’t working, adjust it and try again. It is often recommended to start with a vision (Proverbs 29:18) and then work down to the tactics. While strategy and tactics can and should change over time, your vision will be the anchor that holds the strategies and tactics together when the waves get high and the storm billows blow.

Legal Tactics

"Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory." — Sun Tzu (孫子) ·

Legal EyesLegal tactics in opposition to legalized abortion include promoting the Pro-Life position to the public, electing and lobbying public officials, mass demonstrations, literature distribution, sidewalk counseling, supporting pregnancy care centers, public and/or private prayer vigils, graphic signs, and even specialty license plates. All have their place. All have their strengths. All have their weaknesses. All have their ardent followers. All have their opponents.

Time and Tactics

Today it’s been 14,203 days or thirty-eight (38) years, ten (10) months and twenty (20) days since Monday, January 22nd, 1973. Things change. Since Roe v. Wade and Doe V. Bolton we have lost the lives of over fifty-five (55) million babies and counting to surgical abortions during all nine (9) months of pregnancy alone. Right now, abortions are declining by just 1.2% a year. 2 At that rate, it will take nearly one hundred (100) years to cut the annual death toll in half and two hundred (200) years to end abortion on demand all together. As I write this column, I am aware that Black America has lost over twenty (20) million of the over fifty-five (55) million lives lost to abortion and at the rate we are aborting our children, I am painfully aware that we won’t last another 100 years. If vision must be held on to. If strategy must be reviewed and reworked. If the Pro-Life movement is going to effect her strategy and achieve her vision of a world that respects life at all stages of development by love and by law, our tactics must be flexible.

The Art Of War

"Therefore, when I have won a victory I do not repeat my tactics but respond to circumstances in an infinite variety of ways." — Sun Tzu (孫子) ·

Sun Tzu, Art Of WarIn the Pro-Life movement there is a “rift over legal tactics” among sincere and dedicated warriors. Many favor an all-out legal attack on Roe. v. Wade. However, at least twenty-five (25) cases 3 and briefs attempting to overturn Roe v. Wade including those cases and briefs arguing Fourteenth (14th) Amendment Personhood have been filed to no avail. Others favor strategies and tactics that install state laws that reduce, regulate or restrict abortion in an effort to chip away at Roe until higher polls and more political equity is in place to end legalized abortion. Still others favor and embrace strategies and tactics that do not include walking through the front door of the Supreme Court and arguing their case before the Bench.

We Wrestle Not Again Flesh And Blood

It’s easy to see the wisdom in the above quote. Sun Tzu, the celebrated military general and strategist who authored the definitive military treatise entitled “The Art of War,” clearly points out the need to be creative when developing strategies and tactics. However, it’s the words of the Apostle Paul to the angel of the church in Ephesus that come to my mind today. “For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.” 4 “There is utterly a fault among us.” 5 So we must “try every spirit” 6 and stop fighting one another. It’s time we all work together as the Body of Christ, fight sin from every vantage point as God has gifted each of us to do so, leave the results to God and give Him the glory for the great things He has done. Because “… whatsoever is not of faith is sin.” 7

Brothers, we really need to talk.

· Sun Tzu, “The Art of War”, is an ancient Chinese military treatise that is attributed to Sun Tzu (also referred to as “Sunzi” and “Sun Wu”). It is one of the oldest and most successful books on military strategy in the world. (
1. Erik Eckholm, “Anti-Abortion Groups Are Split on Legal Tactics”, New York Times, 12/04/2011 (
2. Dennis M. Howard, Founder and President of Movement for a Better Amrica, “Yes, we can end abortion within your lifetime and mine” (
3. Cases & Briefs Attempting to Overturn Roe v. Wade and/or arguing 14th Amendment Personhood, [Ordered by date of United States Supreme Court disposition with most recent first], June 15th, 2011 (
4. Ephesians 6:12, King James Version of The Bible (
5. 1st Corinthians 6:7a, King James Version of The Bible (
6. 1st John 4:1, King James Version of The Bible (
7. Romans 14:23, King James Version of The Bible (

Personhood: Corporate Personhood

In Abortion, Personhood on December 12, 2011 at 12:00 am

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Personhood: Corporate Personhood

"On January 21st, 2010, with its ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, the Supreme Court ruled that corporations are persons, entitled by the U.S. Constitution to buy elections and run our government. Human beings are people; corporations are legal fictions." — MoveToAmend.Org, dedicated to ending corporate rule and empowering democracy. 1

Move To Amend (Learn More)

Move To Amend: End Corporate RuleBy definition, Corporate Personhood allows corporations to have rights and responsibilities similar to those of a natural person. By way of the Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution (adopted on July 9th, 1868), our courts have interpreted the word “person” to extended certain constitutional protections to corporations. MoveToAmend.Org is a bold coalition of organizations and individuals dedicated to ending the illegitimate but legal doctrines that prevent the American people from governing themselves. 2

Motion To Amend (Learn More)

“Corporations have no consciences, no beliefs, no feelings, no thoughts, no desires,” wrote Stevens. “Corporations help structure and facilitate the activities of human beings, to be sure, and their ‘personhood’ often serves as a useful legal fiction. But they are not themselves members of ‘We the People’ by whom and for whom our Constitution was established.” — John Paul Stevens, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Dissenting Opinion in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 08-205 (2010) 3

MoveToAmend.Org’sMotion To Amend” 4 reads as follows:

We, the People of the United States of America, reject the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Citizens United, and move to amend our Constitution to:

  • Firmly establish that money is not speech, and that human beings, not corporations, are persons entitled to constitutional rights.
  • Guarantee the right to vote and to participate, and to have our vote and participation count.
  • Protect local communities, their economies, and democracies against illegitimate "preemption" actions by global, national, and state governments.

Personhood: Human Personhood

"Act XII—Negro Womens Children To Serve According To The Condition Of The Mother: WHEREAS some doubts have arrisen whether children got by any Englishman upon a Negro woman should be slave or free, Be it therefore enacted and declared by this present grand assembly, that all children borne in this country shalbe held bond or free only according to the condition of the mother, And that if any christian shall committ ffornication with a Negro man or woman, hee or shee soe offending shall pay double the ffines imposed by the former act." — Act XII, Laws of Virginia, December 1662, Hening, Statutes at Large, 2: 170. 5

California Human Rights Amendment (Learn More)

California Human Rights Amendment Logo

Even before the foundation of the United States of America (Virginia, December 1662 6), our leaders have repeatedly and deliberately failed to understand that personhood is intrinsic to being human. Today, the California Human Rights Amendment 7 understands this and gives “We, the People of the United States of America” an opportunity to finally get the life issue right. Perhaps Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States (1981-1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967-1975), said it best. “Despite the formidable obstacles before us, we must not lose heart. This is not the first time our country has been divided by a Supreme Court decision [ Roe v. Wade ] that denied the value of certain human lives. The Dred Scott decision of 1857 was not overturned in a day, or a year, or even a decade. At first, only a minority of Americans recognized and deplored the moral crisis brought about by denying the full humanity of our Black brothers and sisters; but that minority persisted in their vision and finally prevailed. They did it by appealing to the hearts and minds of their countrymen, to the truth of human dignity under God. From their example, we know that respect for the sacred value of human life is too deeply engrained in the hearts of our people to remain forever suppressed.” 8

The California Human Rights Amendment is the final chapter of the Civil Rights movement. Let’s work together and finish the job.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

1. MoveToAmend.Org, “We the People, Not We the Corporations” (
2. Ibid., About Us (
3. Associate Justice Justice Stevens dissenting opinion (
4. Motion To Amend (
5. Act XII, Laws of Virginia, December 1662, Hening, Statutes at Large, 2: 170, (
6. Ibid.
7. California Human Rights Amendment (
8. “Abortion and the Conscience of the Nation“, President, Ronald Reagan penned this in an article for The Human Life Review, It ran in the Review’s Spring 1983 (

Personhood: Settling The Science

In Abortion, Personhood on December 5, 2011 at 12:00 am
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Personhood: Settling The Science

“I’m pregnant. At what point in my pregnancy is it called a baby?” 1

Planned Parenthood Am I Pregnant?

According to Planned Parenthood, the largest abortion provider in the United States of America: “Most medical authorities, including Planned Parenthood, agree that it becomes a baby after birth when it takes its first breath.” 2 When addressing pregnancy itself, Planned Parenthood says: “Pregnancy begins when a fertilized egg implants in the uterus.” 3 To help us understand the relationship between “pregnancy” and “implantation”, Planned Parenthood has this to say: “Pregnancy begins when the ball of cells attaches to the lining of the uterus. This is called implantation. It usually starts about 6 days after fertilization and takes about 3-4 days to be complete.” 4 Okay, ladies, there you have it! “Most medical authorities” agree with Planned Parenthood. You’re not pregnant until “implantation” and it’s not a baby until it takes its “first breath.” Finally, science has settled the issue. Or has it?

Personhood: Settling The Science

“I’m pregnant. At what point in my pregnancy is it called a baby?” 5

"Any attempt to interfere with the development of the fertilized ovum is called an abortion." — Margaret Sanger, Family Limitation, Revised Sixth Edition, 1917.

Marian AndersonMarian Anderson (1920)

The answer to this question tugs at the heart of the Pro-Life movement. So its important we hear from both sides of the debate. According to “most medical authorities” and Planned Parenthood a baby can exist at different states of human development. For example, when “it” (i.e., the baby) is delivered prematurely and breathes, he or she is a baby and therefore a person that should be protected by love and by law. However, when “it” (i.e., the baby) continues to grow in the womb (even to “full-term” 6), “it” is not a baby until after birth when “it” takes “its” first breath. Hmmmm … this is confusing. Apparently, “it” can become a baby and by means of that process a person, at any time. At this point, I can’t help but wonder why “most medical authorities” and Planned Parenthood, the largest abortion provider in the United States of America, would choose to embrace such faulty logic. Perhaps Marian Anderson, one of the most celebrated singers of the twentieth century and an important figure in the struggle for Black artists overcoming the illogical nature of racism and racial hatred in the United States can suggest an explanation. 7 According to Anderson, “Fear is a disease that eats away at logic and makes man inhuman.” 8 From my vantage point and because I believe truth as the power to set us free, it appears to me that “most medical authorities” and Planned Parenthood’s are deathly afraid of the financial consequences of the truth.

Personhood: Settling The Science

“I’m pregnant. At what point in my pregnancy is it called a baby?” 9

"Embryonic life commences with fertilization, and hence the beginning of that process may be taken as the point de depart of stage 1. Despite the small size (ca. 0.1 mm) and weight (ca. 0.004 mg) of the organism at fertilization, the embryo is “schon ein individual-spezifischer Mensch” [ Translation: “even one individual-specific human” ]" — Blechschmidt, 1972 10

Personhood Now Banner!According to the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, since 1942, and already documented for almost 60 years before then, at the first contact of the sperm with the oocyte you have the earliest stage of human life and human DNA. 11 WOW! It appears, regarding the question: “I’m pregnant. At what point in my pregnancy is it called a baby?” that the science is settled after all and that “most medical authorities” and Planned Parenthood are wrong. At the moment of conception, that is when the spermatozoon makes contact with the occyte, momma is pregnant with child. (12,13,14,15,16) The California Human Rights Amendment, understands this profound truth. Click here to read our campaign message “Why Personhood?

Recently, in an online New York Times opinion column, Notre Dame philosophy professor Gary Gutting argues that “those who do not agree that a fertilized egg is a person cannot argue that abortion is wrong because an embryo or fetus has human DNA.” 17 Wesley J. Smith, J.D., my friend and Special Consultant to the Center for Bioethics and Culture Network put it this way on the back of a Starbucks Cup on Father’s Day, Sunday, June 18th, 2006: “The morality of the 21st century will depend on how we respond to this simple but profound question: Does every human life have equal moral value simply and merely because it is human?” 18 For Christ’s sake, I hope we’re all answering YES!

Brothers, we really need to talk.

01. Planned Parenthood, Health Topics Q & A (
02. Ibid.
03. Planned Parenthood, Stages of Pregnancy at a Glance (
04. Ibid., Weeks 3-4.
05. Planned Parenthood, Health Topics Q & A, op. cit.
06. Abort73.Com, “U.S. Abortion Law” (
07. “Marian Anderson”, Women In History, Living vignettes of notable women from U.S. History (
08. “Fear is a disease that eats away at logic and makes man inhuman.” — Marian Anderson,The James Logan Courier, Sunday, February 27, 2011 (
09. Planned Parenthood, Health Topics Q & A, op. cit.
10. Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, Stage 1 (
11. Ibid.
12. “The term conception, however, may refer either to fertilization or to implantation and hence (like gestation) is best avoided.” [Ronan O’Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology, (New York: Wiley-Liss, 1994), page 19]
13. “Human pregnancy begins with the fusion of an egg and a sperm … finally, the fertilized egg, now properly called an embryo, must make its way into the uterus.” [Bruce M. Carlson, Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1994), (page 3)]
14. “Human pregnancy begins with the fusion of an egg and a sperm, but a great deal of preparation precedes this event. First both male and female sex cells must pass through a long series of changes (gametogenesis) that convert them genetically and phenotypically into mature gametes, which are capable of participating in the process of fertilization. Next, the gametes must be released from the gonads and make their way to the upper part of the uterine tube, where fertilization normally takes place. … Finally, the fertilized egg, now properly called an embryo, must make its way into the uterus … “. [Bruce Carlson, Human Embryology & Developmental Biology (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1999), (page 2).
15. “In this text, we begin our description of the developing human with the formation and differentiation of the male and female sex cells or gametes, which will unite at fertilization to initiate the embryonic development of a new individual. … Fertilization takes place in the oviduct [not the uterus] … resulting in the formation of a zygote containing a single diploid nucleus.” [William J. Larsen, Human Embryology (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997) (page 1).
16. “The organism proceeds along the uterine tube by means not entirely understood (reviewed by Adams, 1960). It leaves the tube and enters the uterine cavity during the third or fourth day after ovulation, when probably 8-12 cells are present, and when the endometrium is early in the secretory phase (corresponding to the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle).” [Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, Stage 2, at:]
17. Gary Gutting, The New York Times, “On Abortion and Defining a ‘Person'”, November 30, 2011 (
18. Wesley J. Smith, Featured on Starbuck’s take-away coffee cups as part of its “The Way I See It” 2006 Campaign (