Walter Hoye

We Cannot Escape History (3 of 3)

In Abortion, Politics on August 15, 2011 at 12:00 am

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True or False Tests

“The statesman cannot govern without stability of belief, true or false.” — George Bernard Shaw


True Of FalseA “True or False” (tro͞oˈfôlsˈ) test consists of a series of statements to be identified as either “true” or “false”. “True or False” tests present an exclusive disjunction (i.e., a pair of alternatives of which only one is acceptable). A simple way to state this is: “One or the other but not both“. Usually there are more true answers than false on most tests. Finally, since there is no guessing penalty and you have a 50% chance of getting the right answer, feel free to guess.

This is part three (3) of a three (3) part series of True or False tests. Each test contains statements for your consideration. Many thanks goes to David Barton of Wallbuilders for his scholarly work.

Statement #1

The same state that saw Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925 — June 12, 1963), James Earl “J.E.” Chaney (May 30, 1943 — June 21, 1964) and Emmett Louis “Bobo” Till (July 25, 1941 — August 28, 1955) murdered, witnessed the election of a Black American senator, Hiram Revels of Mississippi, and several members of the House from the South during Reconstruction. After a brief period of Republican control in the South which saw major improvements in the lives of Black Americans, Southern states instituted new laws with the goal of eliminating Black political activity.

Walter B. Hoye II

From the left to the right, Senator Hiram Rhodes Revels, from Mississippi and an ordained minister. Next was Representative Benjamin Turner, of Alabama. Turner was a slave during the Civil War but five (5) years afterward was a wealthy businessman. Third and standing up was Representative Robert De Large of South Carolina. De Large was born a slave but three (3) years afterward was chairing the Republican Party’s Platform Committee. Fourth and sitting was Representative Josiah Walls of Florida, a slave during the Civil War and forced to fight for the Confederacy. In 1862 Walls was captured by the Union army and voluntarily joined. In 1862 he rose to rank of corporal. Fifth and standing was Representative Jefferson Franklin Long of Georgia. Born a slave, but was self educated and built a thriving business. Long became the first Black American to deliver a congressional speech in the U.S. House. Sixth and sitting was Representative Joseph Hayne Rainey of South Carolina. Born a slave, but served as Speaker of the U.S. House and was in Congress longer than any other Black American from that era. Seventh and sitting was Representative Robert Brown Elliott also of South Carolina. Well educated and could read Spanish, French, and Latin. Elliott led the passage of the Civil Rights bills against vehement opposition from the Democrats and later became Speaker of the House in the State legislature. 1

True or False. Your Answer Goes Here: __________

Statement #2

Above is a picture of the 1872 print by Currier and Ives, depicting the first seven (7) Black Americans elected to the U.S. Congress. All seven (7) were Republicans2

True or False. Your Answer Goes Here: __________

We Cannot Escape History 3

“History is the only laboratory we have in which to test the consequences of thought.” — Étienne Gilson


True Box CheckedAn 1870 Cleveland Newspaper documented the attempt by Democrats to prevent Hiram Rhodes Revels from taking his seat4 Here is a quote from that newspaper: “[T]he business relative to the credentials of Mr. Revels as Senator from Mississippi was taken up. The debate which followed assumed a wide range of political questions.

Hiram Rhodes RevelsHon. Hiram Rhodes Revels

At 4:40 o’clock, a vote was taken and upon the motion of Mr. Stockton [a Democratic Senator from New Jersey] to refer the credentials of Mr. Revels to the judiciary committee.” So what happened? The vote was forty-eight (48) to eight (8) in favor of Mr. Revels. All forty-eight (48) Republicans said that Mr. Revels had the right credentials to serve in the Senate. All eight (8) Democrats said he did not. After a Senate Committee investigation, Mr. Revels’ credentials were easily established and he became a proud member of the U.S. Senate from February 23rd, 1870 to March 3, 1871. 5

Hmmmmmm …

Mr. Revels’ credentials could easily be established …

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Reference(s):
1. From an original in David Barton’s collection, “The First Colored Senators and Representatives”; see also Hughes, Meltzer, and Lincoln, A Pictorial History of Black Americans, p. 208.
2. Black Americans in Congress, Historical Data, 41st Congress, 1869-1871 (http://bit.ly/bU8MUO) and 42nd Congress, 1871-1873 (http://bit.ly/a1xEkb).
3. Abraham Lincoln in Annual Message to Congress, Dec. 1, 1862.
4. The Cleveland Leader, February 26th, 1870, Vol. XXIV, No.4.
5. Barton, David, “American History in Black & White”, published by Wallbuilders Press, Aledo, Texas, pp. 62-63.


NOTE: The answers in this test are all: True.

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