Walter Hoye

Archive for May, 2011|Monthly archive page

The Goal Of The Pro-Life Movement

In Abortion on May 30, 2011 at 12:00 am

End Goals

“I would say that the first point or the first principle in the movement [i.e., the nonviolent civil rights movement of the 1960’s] is the idea that means must be as pure as the end. This movement is based on the philosophy that ends and means must cohere.” — (Martin Luther King Jr.)  [1]

End-Goals describe exactly what we want. End-Goals are few, End Goalsmeans-goals are many. In top-down strategies an overview of “end-goals” are formulated while “means-goals” are identified but not detailed. Over time “means-goals” are refined in greater detail until paths to the “end-goals” present themselves. In management theory, top-down models often employ the assistance of means-goals. In theory flexible means-goals make it easier to reach end-goals. However, means-goals often fail to clearly illuminate the path to end-goals because in the heat of the battle, means-goals can easily be confused with end-goals.

Means Goals

Now this has been one of the long struggles in history, the whole idea of means and ends. Great philosophers have grappled with it, and sometimes they have emerged with the idea, from Machiavelli on down, that the end justifies the means. There is a great system of thought in our world today, known as Communism. And I think that with all of the weaknesses and tragedies of Communism, we find its greatest tragedy right here, that it goes under the philosophy that the end justifies the means that are used in the process. So we can read or we can hear the Lenins say that lying, deceit, or violence, that many of these things justify the ends of the classless society.” — (Martin Luther King Jr.)  [2]

Means-goals, on the other hand, define one of many paths to reach your end-goals. Mean GoalsMeans-goals are many, end-goals are few. Means-goals are often linked together to form end-goals. In bottom-up strategies means-goals are first formulated and then defined in great detail. In management theory, bottom-up models often start small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. In theory end-goals can define and justify means-goals. However, end-goals often fail to be achieved because they are developed in isolation and become subject to means-goals3

End Goals vs. Means Goals

“This is where the student movement and the non-violent movement that is taking place in our nation would break with Communism and any other system that would argue that the end justifies the means. For in the long run, we must see that the end represents the means in process and the ideal in the making. In other words, we cannot believe, or we cannot go with the idea that the end justifies the means because the end is pre-existent in the means.” — (Martin Luther King Jr.)  [4]

The end-goal of the Pro-Life movement is to end abortion. End/Means GoalsRaising funds, accumulating votes and building political equity in an effort to end abortion are examples of means-goals. However, focusing on means-goals at the expense of losing sight of the end-goal is a trap and will not end abortion. Moreover, ending abortion at all costs and allowing the end-goal to justify means-goals will not end abortion. So as a movement, let’s redefine our end-goal in the light of God’s Holy Word. 5

The Goal Of The Pro-Life Movement

“So the idea of non-violent resistance, the philosophy of non-violent resistance, is the philosophy which says that the means must be as pure as the end, that in the long run of history, immoral destructive means cannot bring about moral and constructive ends.” — (Martin Luther King Jr.)  [6]

I Am Submitting The Following For Consideration

"The end-goal of the Pro-Life movement is to end abortion End Abortion Goalsin a way that brings glory to Christ so that the spiritual, physical and emotional needs of women and children are met and every life, from the beginning of our biological development, regardless of the means by which we were procreated, method of reproduction, age, race, sex, gender, physical well-being, function, or condition of physical or mental dependency and/or disability, without apology and without exception, is protected by love and by law."

This goal cannot be compromised and still achieved.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

1. “Love, Law, and Civil Disobedience“, Address to annual meeting of Fellowship of the Concerned, 16 November 1961. Reprinted in A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speechs of Martin Luther King, Jr., Ed. James Melvin Washington, HarperSanFrancisco, 1986, page 45.
2. Ibid.
3. “… if a man also strive for masteries, yet is he not crowned, except he strive lawfully.” — (2nd Timothy 2:5, KJV)
4. “Love, Law, and Civil Disobedience“, op. cit., page 45.
5. “Then God said, Let Us make humans in Our image, in Our likeness. Let them rule the fish in the sea, the birds in the sky, the domestic animals all over the earth, and all the animals that crawl on the earth. So God created humans in His image. In the image of God He created them. He created them male and female.” — (Genesis 1:26,27, GodsWord)
6. “Love, Law, and Civil Disobedience“, op. cit., page 45.

The Cost Of Victory

In Abortion on May 23, 2011 at 12:00 am

On The Brink Of Victory

Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln

On March 4th, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln took the Oath of Office for the second time. As he was so doing, the Civil War was drawing to a close. Ulysses S. Grant was driving Robert E. Lee back toward Richmond and Sherman was marching through Georgia. The 16th President of the United States of America was standing on the brink of victory. This was the setting of President Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address. 43 days, before he would be assassinated on April 15th, 1865, in perhaps the most important speech of his career and arguably in American history, President Lincoln talked about the cost of victory in these terms:

Terms and Conditions of Victory

“The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether.” — (Psalm 19:9, KJV)

1863 Black Recruitment Poster1863 Black Recruitment Poster

The Almighty has His own purposes. ‘Woe unto the world because of offenses! for it must needs be that offenses come; but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh!’ If we shall suppose that American Slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South, this terrible war, as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a Living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope — fervently do we pray — that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. [Nevertheless,] if God wills that [the war] continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said ‘the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether.'” 1

The Cost Of Victory

“… neither will I offer burnt offerings unto the LORD my God of that which doth cost me nothing.” — King David unto Araunah (2nd Samuel 24:24b, KJV)

If a conclusion is the best explanation one can come up with at a given time to account for a collection of observations, events, and/or other kinds of Conclusiondata, then as I consider the abortion battle raging in our country, the “wealth piled” by the shed blood of the most vulnerable members of our country and that is to say our women and children, how over the last thirty-eight (38) years both the Democratic and Republican parties have repeatedly failed to end abortion, how “we the people” have have failed to hold each other accountable for the lost lives of over 53 million babies by legally induced taxpayer funded abortion alone, how Christians have failed to stand boldly, unapologetically and without exceptions and/or compromises on clearly biblical values, I wrestle with the question asked by the “Angel of the LORD” (i.e., the Pre-Incarnate Christ.) in Judges 2:2 (AMP), “Why Have You Done This?” 2 and physically shudder as I inevitably come to the following unavoidable conclusions …

Victory over abortion will come by the hands, feet and voices of those most devastated by abortion.
The Cost of ending abortion will not be less than the price paid by the victims of abortion.
The healing from the ravages of a rabid abortion industry will come by the heart of Christ in those most hurt by abortion.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

1. Jon Meacham, “American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the making of a Nation” Random House, Copyright © 2006, pp. 120-121.
2. Judges 2:1,2, Amplified Bible, “Now the Angel of the Lord went up from Gilgal to Bochim. And He said, I brought you up from Egypt and have brought you to the land which I swore to give to your fathers, and I said, I will never break My covenant with you; And you shall make no covenant with the inhabitants of this land; but you shall break down their altars. But you have not obeyed My voice. Why have you done this?

Seven Supreme Court Decisions

In Abortion, Personhood on May 16, 2011 at 8:54 pm

Philadelphia 1787

“For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.” — (Ephesians 6:12, KJV)

From the foundation of the United States of America, our leaders have repeatedly and deliberately failed to understand that personhood is intrinsic to being human. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United StatesStarting with the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, here is a brief history of decisions, at the highest level of our government, that legalized “wickedness in high places,” 1 legitimized man’s inhumanity to man and licensed licentious behavior. The Three-Fifths Compromise was a deal between Southern slave states who wanted to preserve slavery and the Northern states who wanted to preserve the union, where three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. The three-fifths compromise is found in Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the Constitution of the United States of America. Even today, compromise is a legislative model embraced by both the Pro-Abortion and Pro-Life movements.

Seven Supreme Court Decisions

On July 8th, 1776, the Liberty Bell rang out from the tower of Independence Hall summoning the citizens of Philadelphia to hear the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence by Colonel John Nixon. “Proclaim liberty throughout the land and to all the inhabitants thereof.” — Leviticus 25:10 is the inscription around the top of the Liberty Bell.

1. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857): The United States Supreme Court ruled seven to two against Scott, finding that neither he, nor any person of African ancestry, could claim citizenship U.S. Supreme Court Buildingin the United States. Both Roe v Wade and Dred Scott were 7-2 United States Supreme Court decisions. The first 7-2 decision determined Dred Scott was a slave and the second 7-2 decision determined children were not persons and could be killed.2

2. Slaughter-House Cases (1873): The United States Supreme Court eviscerated the 14th Amendment only five (5) years after its adoption. While this decision is best known for reading the Privileges or Immunities Clause out of the United States Constitution, it also wrote out the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause. Due process is a legal principle that the government must respect all of the legal rights that are owed to persons, “endowed by their Creator,” according to the law. 3

3. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): The United States Supreme Court decided that separate “but equal” was fine, and refused to overturn blatantly unconstitutional Jim Crow laws for generations. Once again, the United States Supreme Court denied legal protection to persons they deemed to be inferior human beings.4

4. Buck v. Bell (1927): The United States Supreme Court ruling that upheld a statute instituting compulsory sterilization of the unfit, including the mentally retarded, “for the protection and health of the state.” Justice Oliver W. Holmes, Jr. concluded that: “Three generations of imbeciles are enough.” The sole dissenter in the court, Justice Pierce Butler, declined to write a minority opinion. Here the United States Supreme Court endorsed the practice of negative eugenics which believes the human race could be improved by eliminating “defectives” (i.e., “feeble minded” human beings) from the gene pool.5

5. Korematsu v. United States (1944): The United States Supreme Court upheld President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Executive Order 9066 that allowed the government to lock up thousands of Japanese Americans (i.e., United States citizens with “Foreign Enemy Ancestry“) in concentration camps because of military necessity.6,7

6. Roe v. Wade (1973): The United States Supreme Court decided that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution extends to a woman’s decision to have an abortion. Apparently, in the eyes of the United States Supreme Court, the baby boy or girl in the womb of his or her mother is not a person and thus not protected under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.8

7. Doe v. Bolton (1973): The United States Supreme Court decided that a woman may obtain an abortion after viability, if necessary to protect her health. The Supreme Court’s decision was released on January 22, 1973, the same day as the decision Roe v. Wade.9

As I face the reality of one hundred sixteen (116) years of corrupt United States Supreme Court decisions, over fifty (50) million lives lost to legalized abortion alone and an all too silent Church, I cannot help but ask the question: In America, for whom does the Liberty Bell toll?

Personhood Gets It Right

“The morality of the 21st century will depend on how we respond to this simple but profound question: Does every human life have equal moral value simply and merely because it is human?” — Wesley J. Smith, J.D. [10]

Recognizing personhood as intrinsic to being human in the Constitution of the United States of America, would have averted slavery, Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United Statesconcentration camps, the slaughter of Native Americans, the second class citizenship of women, the shedding of innocent blood in the wombs of our mothers and close the door to the euthanization (from the Greek εùθανασíα meaning “good death”) of our elderly. Personhood is the only Pro-Life strategy in our country today that does not embrace exceptions or legislative models of compromise. Personhood understands that from the beginning of our biological development, regardless of whether we were sexually or asexually reproduced,11 every human life has equal moral value simply because we are human. In the end, when the Pro-Life movement stands victorious by the grace, mercy and shed blood of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, when every life is respected and protected by love and by law, victory will look like Personhood. Personhood gets it right.

The Sacred Value Of Human Life

“Despite the formidable obstacles before us, we must not lose heart. This is not the first time our country has been divided by a Supreme Court decision that denied the value of certain human lives. The Dred Scott decision of 1857 was not overturned in a day, or a year, or even a decade. At first, only a minority of Americans recognized and deplored the moral crisis brought about by denying the full humanity of our black brothers and sisters; but that minority persisted in their vision and finally prevailed. They did it by appealing to the hearts and minds of their countrymen, to the truth of human dignity under God. From their example, we know that respect for the sacred value of human life is too deeply engrained in the hearts of our people to remain forever suppressed. But the great majority of the American people have not yet made their voices heard …” — Ronald Reagan [12]

Today, I am “appealing to the hearts and minds of [my brothers].” I believe if we persist in our pursuit of a Christ honoring Culture of Life, we will finally prevail. I believe the “sacred value of human life is too deeply engrained in the hearts of our people to remain forever suppressed” or for us to remain silent on the sidelines. I believe, “the great majority of the American people have not yet [heard our voices] …” Today, “despite the formidable obstacles before us,” brothers we must let the whole world hear our voices.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

01. Jon Meacham, “American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the making of a Nation” Random House, Copyright © 2006, pp. 120-121.
02. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857) (
03. The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (1873) (
04. Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) (
05. Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927) (
06. Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944) (
07. “Story of Japanese-American Civil-Rights Pioneer Shared At South San Francisco High Assembly”, Karen Korematsu tells her father Fred Korematu’s story, May 5th, 2011 (
08. Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) (
09. Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179 (1973) (
10. Wesley J. Smith, Featured on Starbuck’s take-away coffee cups as part of its “The Way I See It” 2006 Campaign (
11. Scientific Reference For Both Sexual and Asexual Reproduction: Irving and Kischer, “Scientific Response to Criticism of the California Human Rights Amendment as ‘Protecting Fertilized Eggs'”, December 9th, 2009 (
12. “Abortion and the Conscience of the Nation”, President, Ronald Reagan penned this in an article for The Human Life Review, It ran in the Review’s Spring 1983 (

Dennis Howard

In Abortion on May 9, 2011 at 12:00 am

Dennis Howard

Dennis Howard is my Friend and Founder and President of The Movement for a Better America, a non-profit, pro-life educational organization. Over the years, Dennis and I have worked together as pro-life number crunchers. Dennis is a devoted Christian, a husband who loves his wife, unselfish and a tireless worker in the fight to save the lives pre-born children. His statistical analysis of the data is both meritorious and invaluable. With this column I want to share some of his work, in his own words, and both recognize and recommend Dennis as a consultant to churches and pro-life organizations.1  Please, hear ye him.

Dennis Howard: Which Is Worse?

“Which is worse? A slave population that grew by 466% in the 70 years between 1790 and 1860, Which Is Worse?or the genocidal slaughter of 4.67 times as many Blacks in the last 40 years as lived in these United States in 1860. Surely, that wasn’t what Abraham Lincoln had in mind. The ethnic breakdown of this total includes: 34,085,480 Whites, 17,183,630 African Americans, and 2,562,490 “Hispanic or Other.” Previously, the last two categories were combined under “Black and other,” leading to an over-estimate of Black abortions. However, that doesn’t change the genocidal aspect of Black abortions, especially when you look at abortions by race as a percentage of the total population, and as a share of the vulnerable “under-40″ generation.”2

Dennis Howard: A War Against Black Youth

“The total of 17,183,630 Black abortions is 69.7% of the under-40 Black population and 43.1% of 4 Black Youththe total Black population. Both are devastating percentages, especially when you realize that 61.8% of all Blacks are under 40. No doubt about it, this is a younger population that is being devastated by abortion. For comparison, White abortions account for 26.25% of the under-40 White population and just 13.8% of the total White population. These are devastating numbers, too. But no matter how you look at it, Blacks are still three times more likely to be aborted than Whites. For Blacks, this is “a war against the young” in which many of their leaders are complicit. It is astonishing that young Blacks are still willing to support liberal Black politicians who have sold out their race to the pro-abortion political clique that gives them money and power.”3

Dennis Howard: The Data

Research Glasses“I should emphasize that we are only talking about abortions that are both ‘legal’ and reported. For that reason, these statistics remain very conservative. The actual numbers may well be 20 to 30 percent higher and possibly more. Here’s why. For starters, the published numbers are derived from a survey of abortion providers taken by the Alan Guttmacher Institute, a subsidiary of Planned Parenthood, every 3 or 4 years. Between surveys, Guttmacher interpolates the numbers for intervening years. That amounts to a mathematical guess for the non-survey years. No doubt that saves money.”4 The latest data from the CDC is based on abortion data for the year 2007 that were provided voluntarily to CDC by the central health agencies of 49 reporting areas (the District of Columbia; New York City; and 47 states, legally excluding the states of California, Maryland, and New Hampshire). Oh, how can I forget, please keep in mind that among the 49 reporting areas, only 37 of those reporting areas reported race for 2007.5

Brothers: Men Of The Cloth

Abortion is a leading cause of death in America. According to the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) in 2008, 1.21 Million Abortions were performed in the United States of America.6

Brothers, the 1.21 million abortions in 2008 are more than all the deaths in the United States of America from Heart Disease, Cancer and HIV AIDS combined or more than seventy-three (73) times the homicides alone, in other words there are over Seventy-Three (73) Abortions for each Homicide.

  1. Heart Disease: 617,527 7
  2. Cancer (Malignant Neoplasms): 566,137 8
  3. HIV AIDS: 16,605 9
  4. Homicides: 16,442 (of which 6,782 were Black) 10

Brothers, 69% among Blacks, 54% among Hispanics and 40% of pregnancies among White women are unintended.11

Brothers, 37% of women obtaining abortions identify as Protestant and 28% as Catholic.12

Brothers, 54% percent of women who have abortions had used a contraceptive method (i.e., birth control, usually the condom or the pill) during the month they became pregnant.13

Brothers, about 61% of abortions are obtained by women who have one or more children.14

Brothers of all the abortions performed in 2008:

  1. 36% are on White women who are 36% of the population 15
  2. 30% are on Black women who are 06% of the population 16
  3. 25% are on Hispanic women who are 08% of the population 17
  4. 09% are on women of other races 18

Brothers, according to the latest CDC report, for every 1,000 live births among Black women, there were 447 abortions.19

Brothers, the data supports Dr. Clenard Childress who in 2006 first said: “The most dangerous place for an African-American to be is in the womb of their African-American mother.”20

Brothers, we really need to talk.

01. The Movement for a Better America (
02. Dennis Howard, “Abortion: How many is too many?” (
03. Ibid.
04. Ibid.
05. “Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2007”, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC (
06. “Facts on Induced Abortion in the United States”, Alan Guttmacher Institute (
07. National Vital Statistics Reports (
08. Ibid.
09. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (
10. “United States Crime Rates 1960 – 2009”, The Disaster Center (
11. Guttmacher, op. cit. ( and U.S. 2010 Census Data (
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. “Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2007”, TABLE 12. Reported abortions, by known race of women who obtained an abortion and reporting area of occurrence (
20. Childress, Clenard, “The most dangerous place for an African-American to be is in the womb of their African-American mother”, March 29th, 2011 (

Semantics Or Truth, Which Is To Be Master?

In Abortion, Personhood on May 2, 2011 at 12:00 am


But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. — Jesus Christ (Matthew 5:37, KJV)

Semantics (from Greek sêmantiká, neuter plural of sêmantikós) is the study of the meaning of a word, Semanticsphrase, sentence, or text. Here emphasis will be placed on the pejorative sense of the term semantics that is rooted in popular use (i.e., when people talk about the way that language can be manipulated in order to mislead the public). For example and according to the Global Language Monitor (GLM) “change” was the most-used term during the U.S. Presidential campaign of 2008. [1] Today many are asking, what did the term “change” really mean? Still others are asking, what’s the point of such a question? Is this a good question or is the point of such a question just a matter of applied semantics (i.e., purely a petty or paltry verbal pretense), bearing no relationship to anything in the real world?

Let’s see.

Just A Matter of Applied Semantics?

“Woe to them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!” — The Old Testament Prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 5:20, KJV)

Applied Semantics is the study and application of semantics which have many uses (e.g., advertising, text analysis, etc.). According to Ob.Gyn. News, “Ulipristal Acetate” (i.e., ellaOne) is an emergency contraceptive effective for up to 5 days after unprotected Applied Semanticsintercourse. [2] This drug contains a hormone that delays ovulation and alters the environment inside the uterus to prevent implantation of a zygote or embryo. Apparently, the drug fails when a woman is “already pregnant” or when “implantation” has occurred. Did you catch that? A woman is now pregnant when “implantation” has occurred instead of at the moment of “conception” or “fertilization”. In 1959 Dr. Bent Boving, at a Planned Parenthood symposium, seductively proposed the word “conception” should mean “implantation” instead of “fertilization” and effectively gave birth to the illusion of a “pre-embryo”. [3] This concept allows drugs to be described as conception “preventers” rather than “destroyers” of an “established pregnancy” or an abortifacient. In 1965 the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) embraced Boving’s idea and redefined conception to mean: “implantation of an ovum”. [4] In 2000 Stedman’s Medical Dictionary followed ACOG and now conception means “implantation”. [5] Is this “change” in our language just a matter of applied semantics or a deliberate attempt to mislead the public?

You decide.

Semantics Or Truth, Which Is To Be Master?

And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. — Jesus Christ (John 8:32, KJV)

Humpty DumptyAccording to the Nomina Embryologica Committee there is no such thing as a “pre-embryo“. The term is scientifically inaccurate, misleading and a complete myth. There is, rather, an already existing, new living human embryo, a human being that begins to exist immediately at fertilization or cloning. [6] Could this “change” be just an innocent matter of semantics? Why would anyone want to redefine the term conception? Perhaps Humpty Dumpty [7] has already answered this question: “When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean — neither more nor less.” “The question is”, said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.” “The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which [or ‘who’, referring to those that do and those that do not choose to “make words mean so many different things”] is to be master — that’s all.” [8]

Brothers, we really need to talk.

1. The Global Language Monitor (GLM) documents, analyzes and tracks trends in language the world over, with a particular emphasis upon Global English (
2. FDA Approves EC Effective Up to 5 Days, Ob.Gyn. News September 2010 (
3. See American Life League article ( and “Implantation Mechanisms,” in Bent Boving (ed. C. G. Hartman). 1963. Mechanisms Concerned with Conception, New York: Pergamon Press. p. 386.
4. See Answers In Genesis article ( Terms Used in Reference to the Fetus. ACOG Terminology Bulletin 1, September 1965. Chicago: American College of Obstetrics ad Gynecology. The ACOG definition was refined in 1972, changing the word ovum to blastocyst, but maintaining that conception, and therefore pregnancy, begins at implantation.
5. See Answers In Genesis article ( In the 26th edition (1995) of Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, conception was defined as the “act of conceiving, or becoming pregnant; fertilization of the oocyte (ovum) by a spermatozoon to form a viable zygote.” In the 27th edition (2000) of Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, conception is defined as follows: “Act of conceiving; the implantation of the blastocyte in the endometrium.”
6. According to Dianne N. Irving, Ph.D.’s article “A One-Act Play: Crippled Consciences and the Human Embryo” (http//, quoting directly from human embryologists, “The term ‘pre-embryo‘ is not used here for the following reasons: (1) it is ill-defined because it is said to end with the appearance of the primitive streak or to include neurulation; (2) it is inaccurate because purely embryonic cells can already be distinguished after a few days, as can also the embryonic (not pre-embryonic!) disc; (3) it is unjustified because the accepted meaning of the word embryo includes all of the first 8 weeks; (4) it is equivocal because it may convey the erroneous idea that a new human organism is formed at only some considerable time after fertilization; and (5) it was introduced in 1986 ‘largely for public policy reasons’ (Biggers).” … Just as postnatal age begins at birth, prenatal age begins at fertilization.” [O’Rahilly and Muller 2001, p. 88] … “Undesirable terms in Human Embryology”: “Pre-embryo”; ill-defined and inaccurate; use “embryo”. See O’Rahilly and Muller 2001, p. 12.
7. “Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall. Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. All the king’s horses and all the king’s men, couldn’t put Humpty together again.”, Opie and P. Opie, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1951, 2nd edn., 1997), ISBN 0-19-869111-4, pp. 213-5.
8. Through the Looking-Glass, by Lewis Carroll [Charles Dodgson]