Walter Hoye

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Post Election Issue: Why I’m Hearing The GOP Is Done …

In Abortion, Politics, Special Edition on November 26, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Post Election Issue

Why I’m Hearing The GOP Is Done …

White House Tape 697/29 — Thursday, March 30th, 1972

“A majority of people in Colorado voted for abortion, I think a majority of people in Michigan are for abortion, I think in both cases, well, certainly in Michigan they will vote for it [ abortion ] because they think that what’s going to be aborted generally are the little Black bastards.” — Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 1

Republican President Richard Nixon White House Tapes - Part 1


White House Tape 700/10 — Monday, April 3rd, 1972

“…as I told you – we talked about it earlier – that a hell of a lot people want to control the Negro bastards.” — Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 2

Republican President Richard Nixon White House Tapes - Part 2


White House Tape 700/10 — Monday, April 3rd, 1972

“…you know what we are talking about – population control.” — Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 3

Republican President Richard Nixon White House Tapes - Part 3


White House Tape 700/10 — Monday, April 3rd, 1972

“…we’re talking really – and what John Rockefeller really realizes – look, the people in what we call our class control their populations. Sometimes they’ll have a family of six, or seven, or eight, or nine, but it’s exception.” — Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 4

Republican President Richard Nixon White House Tapes - Part 4


White House Tape 700/10 — Monday, April 3rd, 1972

“People who don’t control their families are people in – the people that shouldn’t have kids. Now that’s …” — Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 5

Republican President Richard Nixon White House Tapes - Part 5


White House Tape 700/10 — Monday, April 3rd, 1972

What?” — Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 6

Republican President Richard Nixon White House Tapes - Part 6


The Link Between The GOP and The Family–Planners

“Cecile Richards Of Planned Parenthood: Election Shows GOP Should Embrace Family–Planning Roots” (Huff Post Politics)

“Back in the olden days, the Republican Party was the party that supported people’s individual rights and keeping government out of personal health care decisions, so I think there’s a history they can go back to.”  7 — President Cecile Richards, President of Planned Parenthood

Cecile Richards, Planned Parenthood President

“A lot of Republicans used to support family planning, and Richard Nixon signed that first federal planning program into law. There’s a clear pathway to [ win back women’s support ], and it’s to listen to the middle of their party instead of the extreme fringe.”  8 — President Cecile Richards, President of Planned Parenthood


Family–Planning Roots

Eugenics is … the most adequate and thorough avenue to the solution of racial, political and social problems.” 9 — Margaret Sanger, Planned Parenthood founder and member in good standing with the racist American Eugenics Society (AES).

The American Eugenics Society

“The campaign for birth control is not merely of eugenic value, but is practically identical with the final aims of eugenics.” 10 — Margaret Sanger, Planned Parenthood founder and member in good standing with the racist American Eugenics Society (AES).



Eugenics Held The Key

“I consider that the world and almost our civilization for the next twenty-five years, is going to depend upon a simple, cheap, safe contraceptive to be used in poverty stricken slums, jungles, and among the most ignorant people. Even this will not be sufficient, because I believe that now, immediately, there should be national sterilization for certain dysgenic types of our population who are being encouraged to breed and would die out were the government not feeding them.” 11 — Margaret Sanger, Planned Parenthood founder and member in good standing with the racist American Eugenics Society (AES).


The Society for Biodemography and Social BiologyClearly Republican President Richard Milhous Nixon, racist as the day is long during a summer solstice in the northern hemisphere, was greatly influenced by John D. Rockefeller III as documented in the White House taped conversation above. John D. Rockefeller III was both the founder and major supporter of the Population Council.12 Rooted in the eugenics movement, John D. Rockefeller III appointed Frederick Osborn, a celebrated eugenicist, author of “Preface to Eugenics” (New York, 1940) and one of the founding members of the American Eugenics Society (AES) as the first president of the Population Council.13 Osborn served as President of the Population Council until 1959.14 However, in 1968 Osborn wrote, “Eugenic goals are most likely to be achieved under another name than eugenics.” 15 Moreover in 1972, right after Roe v. Wade was reargued on October 11th, the American Eugenics Society was reorganized and renamed to “The Society for the Study of Social Biology” and now known as “The Society for Biodemography and Social Biology.” 16

According to Osborn …

“The name was changed because it became evident that changes of a eugenic nature would be made for reasons other than eugenics, and that tying a eugenic label on them would more often hinder than help their adoption. Birth control and abortion are turning out to be great eugenic advances of our time.” 17

 

Republican Party Roots

“I am a Republican, a black, dyed in the wool Republican, and I never intend to belong to any other party than the party of freedom and progress.” 18 — Frederick Douglass

The Birthplace of Republican PartyThe “Family–Planning Roots” of the Republican Party, purported by Cecile Richards, President of Planned Parenthood, is a deliberate disconnect and departure from the real and well-documented roots of the Republican Party. In May of 1854 and in response to the Pro-Slavery Democratic Party, Anti-Slavery members of Congress formed the Republican Party.19 The original Republican Party Platform in 1856 had nine (9) planks, six (6) of which were dedicated to Ending Slavery and Securing Equal Rights for Black Americans. The Democratic Party Platform of 1856 supported and defended slavery.20 The 1860 Democratic Party Platform not only endorsed the Fugitive Slave Law but also celebrated and promoted the Dred Scott decision.” 21

  THE BLACK VOTE, THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND THE LAST STRAW!  

MLK Jail NumbersFrom 1870 to 1876 all of us were Republicans. However, since the 1876 Presidential election and “The Compromise of 1877” the Republican Party has cared more about power than people. [See Notes] The last straw came on Wednesday, October 26th, 1960 when Democratic Massachusetts Senator and Presidential candidate John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy telephoned Coretta Scott King from Chicago and expressed his concern about the jail sentence handed down to her husband Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Kennedy’s brother and campaign manager Robert Francis Kennedy called Judge J. Oscar Mitchell from New York the following day, reportedly to inquire into King’s right to bail. Amazingly and later that same day, King was released on a $2,000 appeal bond after nine (9) days imprisonment. In this interview, King concedes that Kennedy “served as a great force in making my release possible.” While King maintained a nonpartisan stance in the presidential race, his father (i.e., Martin Luther King, Sr., “Daddy King”) publicly announced he was switching his support from the Republican Party’s Presidential Candidate of the United States Richard Milhous Nixon to John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy in light of the Democratic candidate’s call to his daughter-in-law Coretta Scott King. When Daddy King switched his vote to the Democratic Party, this marked the end of a ninety (90) year relationship (from 1870 to 1960) between the Republican Party and the Black vote. [See Notes]

There Is No Way To Escape The Implications!

“There is no way to escape the implications. When an organization has a history of racism, when its literature is openly racist, when its goals are self-consciously racial, and when its programs invariably revolve around race, it doesn’t take an expert to realize that the organization is indeed racist.” 22 — William L. Davis, a Black Financial Analyst

ImplicationsWhile today’s Republican Party has long and incontestably departed from its sonorous and well-documented abolitionist roots, it is equally apparent that the Democratic Party has NOT departed from its wicked and well-documented racist roots. There is no way to escape the implications that President Barack Hussein Obama II and the Democratic Party are co-conspirators in the genocide of Black America. Both wholeheartedly endorse, support and promote an organization whose mission is one of population control.23 An organization that was founded by Margaret Sanger,24 a well-documented proponent of eugenics,25 a celebrated Klu Klux Klan speaker26 and one of the architects of the now infamous 1939 Negro Project,27 whose sole objective was to infiltrate the Black community by hiring Black preachers28 and presenting birth control as a health option for Black women.29 An organization, that according to a Life Dynamics report called, “Racial Targeting and Population Control,” which cross-examined zip codes of minority neighborhoods and abortion facilities across America, is the leader in an industry that has installed 83% of their abortion or abortion-referring facilities in minority neighborhoods.30 An organization that according the very latest research released by Protecting Black Life (an outreach of the Life Issues Institute) has 79% of its surgical abortion facilities located within walking distance of Black American and/or Hispanic/Latino communities.31 An organization that today is the largest abortion provider in the United States of America,32 performing about one-third of all abortions in the country,33 performing more than 329,000 abortions a year, 27,416 abortions a month, 6,326 abortions a week and over 900 abortions a day.34 An organization that earned an estimated $154 million dollars from those 329,000 abortions35 where 40% of abortions were performed on minority women.36 An organization that is financially backed by the United States government, receiving 46% of its annual budget37 in the form of more than $487 million taxpayer dollars a year.38 An organization whose President took a break from her “day job” running the organization’s abortion business to campaign full-time to re-elect President Barack Obama39 and gave more than $15 million dollars to the President’s re-election campaign.40 An organization whose criminal negligence and depraved indifference botched Chicago’s Tanya Reaves second trimester abortion and let the sister bleed for over five (5) hours before calling emergency services.41 An organization where there have been fourteen (14) cases of serious medical emergencies documented at their abortion facilities within the last 24 months.42 An organization that when investigators called the same abortion facilities that had recent and documented medical emergencies, denied any incidents occurred at their abortion facilities and lied about the risks of the abortion procedure.43 An organization that’s been caught advising sex-traffickers on how to secure abortions for underage girls with no questions asked.44 An organization where donors can give money specifically for the abortion of a Black baby.45 An organization whose President publicly claimed her organization provides mammograms, the breast cancer screening procedure for women, but whose staff in twenty-seven (27) different states publicly stated: “We don’t provide those services whatsoever.” 46 An organization that is currently embroiled in a lawsuit that alleges its involvement in “repeated false, fraudulent, and ineligible claims for Medicaid reimbursements” through the Texas Women’s Health Program.47 What is the name of this organization that uses almost half a billion taxpayer dollars to target Black neighborhoods, perform and botch late-term abortions, advise sex traffickers and pimps48 on how to secure taxpayer funded abortions for underage girls and falsely claim to provide life saving breast cancer screening? Why, it’s Planned Parenthood and there is no way to escape the implications that Planned Parenthood is racist and that after the 2012 election, the GOP is done.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Note(s):

· Reconstruction was ended by the Compromise of 1877, a morally flawed but historically consequential arrangement that put Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House and removed federal troops from the South. [Click Here] This compromise consisted of an agreement to drop the Negro problem from the agenda of national policy questions. Hayes called it the ‘let alone‘ policy. It was similar to what others before him had called ‘popular sovereignty‘ and to what others after him have called ‘benign neglect.’ In each case it meant the same thing: no issue of justice was at stake and, therefore, national policy was not required to address the issue. Whatever the Negro problem was, it was not a public problem.” 

· King was in the Georgia State Prison, Reidsville, Georgia because a group of students representing “The Committee on Appeal for Human Rights,” led by Mr. Lonnie C. King, a student at Morehouse College, had called for his help. Dr. King delayed his trip to Nigeria and joined the student sit-in movement of Atlanta, Georgia. [Click Here] What happened to Dr. King that did not happen to the students that were arrested in the same demonstration? Dr. King was transferred to the “Dekalb County Jail” and charged with parole violation. On Wednesday, May 4th, 1960 King was arrested and issued a citation for driving without a license. He paid the fine and went on with his life. Judge J. Oscar Mitchell claimed Dr. King was also given twelve months probation. This was not known to Dr. King or his representative who paid the fine for the minor traffic violation. Judge Oscar Mitchell of Dekalb County proceeded to sentence Dr. King to four month’s hard labor in the Georgia State Prison for a minor traffic violation. This was the first time such a sentence had been imposed in the history of the state of Georgia! Around four o’clock a.m. the next morning, officers of the law put chains (shackles) on Dr. King, threw him in the prison vehicle, drove 230 miles across the state and incarcerated him in Reidsville State Prison. This was brutality, injustice and evil in high places. However, within less than twenty-four hours the nation and the world responded. Because a young senator from Massachusetts intervened on the side of justice. Senator John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy took a risk for righteousness in support of Dr. King. Judge Mitchell reversed his ruling. This single act of moral and political courage tipped the scales in the presidential election of 1960

Reference(s):

01. Maafa21 — Black Genocide in the 21st Century America, Life Dynamics, Inc. (http://bit.ly/1ak4q1).
02. Ibid.
03. Ibid.
04. Ibid.
05. Ibid.
06. Ibid.
07. Huff Post Politics, “Cecile Richards Of Planned Parenthood: Election Shows GOP Should Embrace Family-Planning Roots”, (http://bit.ly/U1iKL2).
08. Ibid., President Nixon convened the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future, chaired by John Rockefeller. This is the Commission that institutionalized abortion by subcontracting Planned Parenthood in the (then) DHEW (now DHHS). And after 8 years of a Republican presidency under Bush, abortion is still legal. See Dr. Tolbert’s excellent work here: http://bit.ly/pqOqbB.
09. Margaret Sanger, “The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda”, Birth Control Review, October 1921, page 5. (http://bit.ly/KR67B8).
10. Margaret Sanger, Ibid.
11. Correspondence between Sanger and McCormick, Friday, October 27th, 1950 (http://to.pbs.org/cbCcF7).
12. John Davison Rockefeller III, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/d3Cm47).
13. Population Council, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/XrCWU).
14. Ibid.
15. Population Council, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/XrCWU).
16. American Eugenics Society, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/hkJYVL).
17. Ibid.
18. Frederick Douglass, “Frederick Douglass: A Model For The Ages” (http://bit.ly/WEGPMq).
19. David Barton, WallBuilders – Newsletters  Black History Issue 2003 (http://bit.ly/3XdRfY).
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. George Grant, “Grand Illusions: The Legacy of Planned Parenthood”, p. 119. (http://bit.ly/R4iQEL)
23. Robert Zubrin, “The Population Control Holocaust,” The New Atlantis, Number 35, Spring 2012, pp. 33-54. (http://bit.ly/IlMQr5).
24. Planned Parenthood, “History & Successes”, (http://bit.ly/Qb19lE).
25. Margaret Sanger, “Birth Control is not merely of eugenic value, but is practically identical in ideal, with the final aims of Eugenics.” (http://bit.ly/KR67B8l) and “She [Margaret Sanger] read everything she could find on birth control and sexuality and immersed herself in the writings of Thomas Malthus [Eugenist], John Stuart [Eugenist] and Robert Owens [Eugenist] (Sanger, 1938, pp. 124-125). And she met Havelock Ellis [Eugenist], who became her mentor and her lover (Chesler, 1992, p. 120).” (http://bit.ly/KEnGkB) by Jon Knowles with special thanks to Ellen Chesler, Planned Parenthood.
26. Margaret Sanger (1938), “Margaret Sanger, An Autobiography,” New York: W. W. Norton. pp. 361, 366-7. (http://bit.ly/10eyb77).
27. Tanya L. Green, “The Negro Project: Margaret Sanger’s Eugenic Plan for Black Americans” (http://bit.ly/x9c2aV).
28. Ibid.
29. Ibid.
30. Mark Crutcher, “Racial Targeting and Population Control”, Life Dynamics (http://bit.ly/nzULjk).
31. Susan W. Enouen, P.E., “New Research shows Planned Parenthood Targets Minority Neighborhoods,” Life Issues Connector, October 2012 (http://bit.ly/QXPgwf).
32. Planned Parenthood, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/4AgtGW) and Loxafamosity Ministries (LMI) “U.S. Abortion Statistics” (http://bit.ly/YicLF).
33. Joan Frawley Desmond, “As Gender Gap Narrows in Election, Planned Parenthood to the Rescue?”, (http://bit.ly/SeOwGd).
34. Ibid.
35. Protest Planned Parenthood, “The Facts Don’t Lie” Source: Planned Parenthood Annual Reports. (http://bit.ly/STwO7E).
36. Dave Bohon, “After 96 Years, Abortion Giant Planned Parenthood Still Targeting Minorities,” New American (http://bit.ly/R4PMbN) and Susan W. Enouen, P.E., “Why Are Black Women Three Times More Likely to Have an Abortion?”, (http://bit.ly/VrRGcJ).
37. Steven Ertelt, “Planned Parenthood Report: $1B Group Gets 46% From Tax Money”, (http://bit.ly/syznxN).
38. Penny Starr, “Planned Parenthood’s Annual Report: Got $487.4M in Tax Money, Did 329,445 Abortions” (http://bit.ly/x5adxC).
39. FOX News, “Planned Parenthood President: ‘I’ve Taken A Break From My Day Job’ To Volunteer Full Time For Obama” (http://bit.ly/RLR6zZ).
40. Steven Ertelt, “Planned Parenthood Spent $15 Million to Re-Elect Obama”, (http://bit.ly/T3b1vK).
41. Chicago CBS News, “Documents Shed Light On Woman’s Death After Abortion,” (http://cbsloc.al/NTi9HG).
42. “Investigation reveals Planned Parenthood lying about abortion injuries“, Live Action Advocate, Published Wednesday, October 24th, 2012 (http://bit.ly/TASZFa).
43. Ibid.
44. Live Action, “Exposing Planned parenthood’s Cover-up of Child Sex Trafficking” (http://bit.ly/QHIFbR).
45. Live Action, “The Planned Parenthood Racism Project” (http://bit.ly/QpfkVv).
46. The Suzy B Blog, “Planned Parenthood & Mammograms: “We don’t provide those services whatsoever” (http://bit.ly/SbcaD8).
47. Alliance Defending Freedom (ADF), “False Claims and Fraud: Lawsuit Exposes Planned Parenthood Deception” (http://bit.ly/OXlbte).
48. Josh Brown, “‘Pimp’ video stings Planned Parenthood,” The Washington Times (http://bit.ly/Y3MqvY).

Election 2012 Issue: My Letter To Christian Voters

In Abortion, Politics, Special Edition on November 5, 2012 at 4:35 am
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Election Issue

A Letter Of Note …

“If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong!” — President Abraham Lincoln

“Three years into the American Civil War, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln wrote the following letter in order to summarise on paper some points [ including his failures ] he had previously made regarding the recruitment of slaves as Union soldiers and, ultimately, their freeing from the institution of slavery itself. Come the end of the war, all slaves in the U.S. had been freed and, after the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment in December of 1865, slavery was abolished.” 1

President Abraham Lincoln's Letter To Albert G. Hodges

 

“If God now wills the removal of a great wrong, and wills also that we of the North as well as you of the South, shall pay fairly for our complicity in that wrong, impartial history will find therein new cause to attest and revere the justice and goodness of God.” 2 — Yours truly, President Abraham Lincoln, signed Monday, April 4th, 1864.


A Letter To My Fellow Christians

“Always vote for principle, though you may vote alone, you may cherish the sweetest reflection that your vote is never lost.”  3 — President John Quincy Adams

In this letter President Abraham Lincoln summarizes a conversation he had with three (3) Kentuckians: Governor Thomas E. Bramlette, Albert G. Hodges and Archibald Dixon. Hodges was the editor of the Frankfort Commonwealth and Dixon served in the U.S. Senate from 1852 to 1855. Governor Bramlette had protested the recruiting of Black regiments in Kentucky. 4

Lincoln’s letter gives us an extraordinary glimpse into his heart and mind as he faced the challenges of his constitutional responsibility as President of the United States of America and why he changed his inaugural position of non-interference with slavery to one of immediate emancipation. Please note that President Lincoln closed his letter to Hodges with a reference to slavery that reflects back on his inaugural address of 1865. In the end President Lincoln writes: “If God now wills the removal of a great wrong, and wills also that we of the North as well as you of the South, shall pay fairly for our complicity in that wrong, impartial history will find therein new cause to attest and revere the justice and goodness of God.” 5

In my opinion, President Lincoln had come to the point in his development as a child of God that many Christians must likewise reach today, before we cast our vote for the next President of our country tomorrow.

If Abortion Is Not Wrong, Nothing Is Wrong!

Election Day Tomorrow Is The Most Important Election since 1860.

Without question, the biological product of a human male and a human female is a human life, with a human nature. Without argument, abortion on demand sheds the blood and takes the life of an innocent human being. As members of the Body of Christ, let us therefore be transparent with each other and confess, without debate, that legalized abortion on demand is incontestably evil.

Brothers and Sisters In Christ …

Tomorrow we vote.

With this in mind and in the same spirit of President Abraham Lincoln’s letter to Albert G. Hodges dated Monday, April 4th, 1864, here is my letter to you on the eve of our 2012 Presidential election.

My message is simple.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry that has killed more babies in the last forty-four (44) years than the population of our seventy-two (72) largest U.S. cities 6 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support abortion which hurts women, and kills more than 3,000 babies each day 7 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support late-term abortions, even during the 9th month 8 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support abortion on demand based on the size, level of development, environment and degree of dependency of the baby 9 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support abortion on demand based on the sins of the father 10 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support legislation that forces us to pay for abortion with our tax dollars, including secret abortions on thirteen (13) year old girls without their parents consent 11 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support legislation that requires states to provide free sterilizations to fifteen (15) year-old girls even if their parents do not consent to the procedure 12 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support legislation that requires insurers to provide free (cancer-causing) birth control pills and Depo Provera birth control 13 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry that targets communities of color by installing 79% of its surgical abortion facilities within walking distance of Black American and/or Hispanic|Latino neighborhoods 14 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry that kills more Black babies in less than four (4) days than Black lives lynched by the Ku Klux Klan in eighty-six (86) years 15 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry that kills over 1,400 Black babies for every 1,000 Black babies born alive in New York City 16 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry whose business results in Black American women having triple the risk of early preterm birth (EPB), defined as delivery at less than 32.0 weeks gestation, and quadruple the risk of extremely preterm birth (XPB), defined as delivery at less than 28.0 weeks gestation, compared with non-Black American women (1.39% in Blacks vs. 0.35% in Whites) 17 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that endorse and promote unlimited abortions and undermine biblically defined marriage 18 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that attack the Church and her freedom 19 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that serve the interests of a party that struggles with including the word “God” and “Jerusalem” in its platform 20 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry that has killed more babies in the last forty-four (44) years than all the American battle deaths in all U.S. wars since 1776 21 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry that has killed more babies in the last forty-four (44) years than all Americans of all ages and races murdered daily by handguns 22 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that would rather shut down the entire U.S. government than stop funding abortion on demand with tax-payer dollars 23 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that would vote against stopping the killing of children in the wombs of their mothers based on race and gender 24 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry whose business contributes to the Black American fertility rate dropping to 1.9 (well below the population replacement rate of 2.1) in 2003 25 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry that boasts a 1.3% a year reduction rate in abortions, a rate that would take fifty-three (53) years to reduce the number of babies killed in the wombs of their mothers by fifty percent (50%) 26 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If a Christian voting for political candidates that support an industry whose business is biologically linked to increased breast cancer risk 27 is not wrong, then nothing is wrong.

If nothing is wrong, “if in this life only we have hope in Christ,” then perhaps the Apostle Paul was right when he said: “we are of all men most miserable” 28 having served Christ in vain.

In Closing

“In telling this tale I attempt no compliment to my own sagacity. I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me. Now, at the end of three years struggle the nation’s condition is not what either party, or any man devised, or expected. God alone can claim it29 — President Abraham Lincoln, Monday, April 4th, 1864.


Today I Voted VerticalHow we as Christians vote tomorrow will either signal a renewal of our hearts and minds toward Christ or reflect the depth of the depravity in our souls. Voting is a blood bought and thereby precious privilege we inherited from those who died for our freedom before us. John Jay, a leading opponent of slavery, was an American Statesman, Patriot, Diplomat, a Founding Father of our country, and when nominated by George Washington became the first (1st) Chief Justice of the United States of America. 30 Chief Justice Jay believed that the most effective way of ensuring world peace was through propagation of the Christian gospel. Perhaps Jay, in a letter addressed to Pennsylvania House of Representatives member John Murray, dated Saturday, October 12th, 1816, said it best:

Real Christians will abstain from violating the rights of others, and therefore will not provoke war. Almost all nations have peace or war at the will and pleasure of rulers whom they do not elect, and who are not always wise or virtuous. Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty, as well as the privilege and interest, of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.” 31

 

Amen.

This election, let us vote our values vertically.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Reference(s):

01. Abraham Lincoln, This letter is a summary of a conversation which President Abraham Lincoln had with three Kentuckians: Governor Thomas E. Bramlette, Albert G Hodges and Archibald Dixon. Hodges was the editor of the Frankfort Commonwealth and Dixon served in the U.S. Senate from 1852 to 1855. Bramlette had protested the recruiting of black regiments in Kentucky (http://bit.ly/3SFonW).
02. Ibid., A quote from the last paragraph of Lincoln’s Monday, April 4th, 1864 letter to Albert G Hodges.
03. John Quincy Adams, As quoted in Pocket Patriot : Quotes From American Heroes (2005) edited by Kelly Nickell (http://bit.ly/WokCD2).
04. Abraham Lincoln Online, “Letter to Albert G. Hodges” (http://bit.ly/3KKhyi).
05. Abraham Lincoln, op. cit. (http://bit.ly/3SFonW).
06. Dennis M. Howard, “The Abortion Index” The Movement for a Better America, Inc. (http://bit.ly/9FPAN1).
07. Eduardo Verastegui, 60 Second TV Spot (http://bit.ly/SEbVjI).
08. Ibid.
09. Scott Klusendorf, “How to Defend Your Pro-Life Views in 5 Minutes or Less” (http://bit.ly/aZ6Dkn).
10. Karen Dudek, “Piercing the darkness on the Piers Morgan Show” (http://bit.ly/SrHmPt).
11. Eduardo Verastegui, op. cit. (http://bit.ly/SEbVjI).
12. Sabrina Gladstone, “Obamacare Mandate: Sterilize 15-Year-Old Girls for Free–Without Parental Consent” (http://bit.ly/MnAY9p).
13. Karen Malec, “We Are Woman Rally, ObamaCare Mandate Represent War on Women’s Health” (http://bit.ly/VsPPn4).
14. Protecting Black Life, “Planned Parenthood Targets Minority Neighborhoods” (http://bit.ly/RBoWLk).
15. Lynching in the United States, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/3hpsk5).
16. NYC41Percent.com is a project of the Chiaroscuro Foundation (http://bit.ly/eyWdsf).
17. Brent Rooney, M.Sc., “Does Induced Abortion Account for Racial Disparity in Preterm Births, and Violate the Nuremberg Code?” (http://bit.ly/aLzL4h).
18. Eduardo Verastegui’s, Urgent Message For Latinos (http://bit.ly/UppeBP).
19. Ibid.
20. ABC News, “Dems Quickly Switch to Include “God,” “Jerusalem” (http://abcn.ws/TjKltz).
21. Dennis M. Howard, op. cit. (http://bit.ly/9FPAN1).
22. Ibid.
23. CNN Wire Staff, “Shutdown Looms,” Cable News Network (CNN), April 8th, 2011 at 10:54 A.M. (EDT) (http://bit.ly/HBlr4p).
24. HR 3541, “Prenatal Nondiscrimination Act (PRENDA) of 2012″ (http://bit.ly/SHC0OH).
25. U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2011, “Table 83. Total Fertility Rate by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1980 to 2007″ (http://bit.ly/Xddvwr).
26. Guttmacher Institute, “Facts on Induced Abortion in the United States”, August 2011 (http://bit.ly/99dVdw).
27. Coalition on Abortion/Breast Cancer, “The Abortion Breast Cancer (ABC)Summary” (http://bit.ly/Vt1KBl).
28. 1 Corinthians 15:19, (http://bit.ly/VNgpmD).
29. Abraham Lincoln, op. cit. (http://bit.ly/3SFonW).
30. John Jay, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/3FWlux).
31. Ibid.

Environmental Products (8)

In Abortion, Politics on June 25, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (8)

The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment ·

Poor, Rural Black American Men In The South Thought They Were Receiving “Free Health Care” From The United States Government

“The United States government did something that was wrong–deeply, profoundly, morally wrong. It was an outrage to our commitment to integrity and equality for all our citizens … clearly racist!” — President William Jefferson “Bill” Clinton’s apology for the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment to the eight remaining survivors, May 16th, 1997 1


Tuskegee Experiment Test Subjects

For forty (40) years between 1932 and 1972, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) conducted an experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis. 2



By 1910 my grandparents, in the South are two (2) and four (4) years old.

Executive Summary

“Arguably The Most Infamous Bio-Medical Research Study In U.S. History” 3

“The men’s status did not warrant ethical debate. They were subjects, not patients; clinical material, not sick people.” — Dr. John R. Heller, M.D., Director of the Public Health Service’s Division of Venereal Diseases 4


Doctor injecting a patient with placebo as part of the Tuskegee Syphilis StudyBetween 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee, Alabama the United States Public Health Service (PHS), which by the fall of 1979 would become the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 5,6 wholly dedicated to “improving the health, safety, and well-being of America,” 7 studied the natural progression of untreated syphilis in Black American men who thought they were receiving free health care from their government to the bitter end. 8 United States Public Health Service investigators recruited a total of six hundred (600) impoverished, Black American sharecroppers from Macon County, Alabama. 9 Three hundred and ninety-nine (399) had previously contracted syphilis before the study began. Two hundred and one (201) never had the disease. 10 As reasonable compensation for participating in the study, the Black American men Doctor injecting a patient with placebo as part of the Tuskegee Syphilis Studywere offered a free health care plan that included free meals and free burial insurance from the then trusted United States government11 The test subjects were never told they had syphilis and they were never treated for it. 12 According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the men were told they were being treated for “bad blood,” a local term used to describe several illnesses, including syphilis, anemia and fatigue. 13 While the Tuskegee study failed all ethical standards (including the 1947 Nuremberg Code14) protecting the legal rights of research subjects and prohibiting human experimentation, it was especially villainous, vile and vicious because the study’s researchers knowingly failed to treat patients after penicillin was validated as an effective cure for syphilis in the 1940s. 15 IN SUMMARY: Twenty-eight (28) men died of syphilis, one-hundred (100) men died from related complications, at least forty (40) wives were infected and nineteen (19) children contracted congenital syphilis at birth. 16

By 1932 my parents, born in the South, are two (2) and three (3) years old.

Part One: The Background

Working “For The Glory Of Science”

“The Longest Non-Therapeutic Experiment On Humans In Medical History” 17

“The Tuskegee Study had nothing to do with treatment. No new drugs were tested; neither was any effort made to establish the efficacy of old forms of treatment. It was a non–therapeutic experiment, aimed at compiling data on the effects of the spontaneous evolution of syphilis on Black males.” — James Howard Jones, Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment 18


Doctor drawing blood as part of the Tuskegee Syphilis StudyThe Oslo study of Untreated Syphilis, began in 1909 and was published in 192819 This epidemiological investigation of the natural course of the syphilitic infection based upon a re-study of the “Boeck-Bruusgaard Material” reported on the natural history of untreated syphilis in White males20 By 1932 the overtly racist assumptions then prevalent in American medicine, inclined physicians to believe that syphilis would react differently in Black American men21 Dr. Taliaferro Clark, who is credited with the Tuskegee study’s origin, initially wanted to study untreated Tuskegee Syphilis Study Macon County Letter To Patientssyphilis in a group of Black American men for six (6) to eight (8) months and then follow up with a treatment phase. 22 However, Dr. Clark didn’t like how expensive the treatment phase of the study was, calling the “spinal taps” given to the patients “treatment” and agreed with the deceptive methods recommended by his deputy, Dr. Raymond H. Vonderlehr, such as not disclosing the seriousness of untreated syphilis and misrepresenting daily doses of aspirin and iron supplements as useful medication to the volunteers of the study. 23,24 To better understand Dr. Clark’s attitude toward the Black American’s in the study, when referring to the volunteers he said: “These Negroes are very ignorant and easily influenced by things that would be of minor significance in a more intelligent group.” 25 Dr. Clark Tuskegee Study Promotion Flyerretired after the first year and was replaced by Dr. Vonderlehr who went on to gain the consent of the volunteers to endure “spinal taps” by calling them “special free treatment.” 26,27 Dr. Vonderlehr retired in 1943 and was replaced by Dr. John R. Heller as Director of the United States Public Health Service’s Division of Venereal Diseases28 In 1972 when the public learned the truth about the study, Dr. Heller refused to acknowledge the inherent inhumanity of the study, its similarities to Nazi human experimentation and defended the study’s unethical practices saying: “There was nothing in the experiment that was unethical or unscientific.” 29 “For the most part, doctors and civil servants simply did their jobs. Some merely followed orders, others worked for the glory of science.” 30

By the end of 1956 I am four (4) months old in Detroit, Michigan.

Part Two: On The Hill

A Congressional Hearing Was In Order

The Democratic Party Called for A Congressional Hearing To Investigate

“I didn’t want to believe it. This was the Public Health Service. We didn’t do things like that.” — Peter Buxtun, the whistleblower responsible for ending the Tuskegee syphilis experiment. 31


Peter Buxton Exposes The Tuskegee StudyIn December of 1965 Peter Buxtun, a social worker and epidemiologist in San Francisco, was hired by the Public Health Service to interview patients with sexually transmitted diseases. 32 In the course of his work, Buxtun learned of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. In November 1966 he filed an official protest and the United States Center for Disease Control (CDC) responded by asserting that the study must continue until all of the patients had died, allowing the researchers the opportunity Jean Heller Tuskegee Study Washington Star Articleto autopsy all the patients. 33 This conclusion was also backed by the National Medical Association and the American Medical Association34 In 1968 Buxtun, filed another protest and again, his concerns were ruled irrelevant. 35 By 1972 Peter Buxtun leaked information on the Tuskegee Experiment to Associated Press reporter Jean Heller (no relation to Dr. John R. Heller). Jean Heller’s story, in the Washington Evening Star Tuskegee Termination Memo from the Department Of Health, Education, And Welfare Office Of The Secretaryexposing the ruthlessly racist Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was published on Tuesday, July 25th, 197236 The next day, the story became front-page news in the New York Times. 37 Senator Edward Kennedy from Massachusetts, a member of the Democratic Party, called for a Congressional hearing where Peter Buxtun testified. 38 Shortly thereafter (Thursday, November 16th, 1972) the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was terminated. 39 Thank God! Understandably, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment created a deep and abiding distrust of governmental health care programs among Black Americans that is still in effect today.

By 1972 I am a sixteen (16) year old, high schooler in California.

In 1972 Democrat Carl Bert Albert was Speaker of the House.

Part Three: In The White House

A Presidential Apology Was In Order

The Democratic Party Reached Out To Restore The Trust Of Black American’s

“What was done cannot be undone. But we can end the silence. We can stop turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye and finally say on behalf of the American people, what the United States government did was shameful, and I am sorry … To our African American citizens, I am sorry that your federal government orchestrated a study so clearly racist.” — President William Jefferson “Bill” Clinton’s apology for the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment to the eight remaining survivors, May 16th, 1997 40


President Clinton Apologies To The Survivors Of The Tuskegee StudyThe United States Public Health Service’s Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was reminiscent of Nazi experiments in Nuremberg. For twenty-five (25) years Black Americans lived with the explanation that the United States Public Health Service’s researchers “merely followed orders” or sacrificially “worked for the glory of science.” I do not have the words to express how much it meant to Black Americans to hear President Clinton, on Friday, May 16th, 1997 apologize to the surviving Tuskegee patients on behalf of the nation.

By 1997 I am a licensed and ordained Baptist preacher in the Bay Area.

President Clinton Apologies To The Survivors Of The Tuskegee Study“To the survivors, to the wives and family members, the children and the grandchildren, I say what you know: No power on Earth can give you back the lives lost, the pain suffered, the years of internal torment and anguish. What was done cannot be undone. But we can end the silence. We can stop turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye and finally say, on behalf of the American people: what the United States government did was shameful. And I am sorry. The American people are sorry — for the loss, for the years of hurt. You did nothing wrong, but you were grievously wronged. I apologize and I am sorry that this apology has been so long in coming.” 41

 

Today I work full time in the Pro-Life movement to reach Black America.

 

Please NoteIn 1973, just sixty-seven (67) days after Merlin K. DuVal, Assistant Secretary to the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), wrote to Dorothy P. Rice, the Director of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), to terminate the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment in 1972, the United States Supreme Court decided both Roe and Doe, establishing a constitutional right to abortion on demand. 42


In 1972 Richard Milhous Nixon was President of the United States of America.

Conclusion

A New Order Is In Order

“Sincere,” “Sound” and “Good-Faith” Investments Are Needed

“I think he [Mitt Romney] has serious ideas. I just think those ideas would scare a lot of the American public. And I think that when the public hears them and hears that he is serious, then we get down to we’re not talking about Obamacare, we’re talking about your health care, we’re talking about your Social Security, we’re talking about your Medicare. When it starts coming into my house — that’s why I said when I spoke at the Martin Luther King Memorial, it’s not about Obama, it’s about your momma.” — Al Sharpton, on MSNBC’s Morning Joe, Live Thursday, December 29th, 2011 43


A New Order TodayI am often asked to explain “how can” and “why do” Black American’s embrace Obamacare. Frankly … While Black Americans have already experienced the manifold blessings of “free health care” under both White Democratic and White Republican administrations, the Democratic Party has publicly acknowledged America’s racist tendencies and boldly invested in Black America by way of Black Americans. This is not to say that the Democratic Party’s investments in my community have been “sincere,” “sound” or even “good-faith” investments. Not at all. However, this is to deliberately say, that “sincere,” “sound” and “good-faith” investments are exactly how New Order Investments by the Republican Party can and will effectively reach voters in communities of color. So what does this look like? “Sincere,” “sound” and “good-faith” investments have always had the power to make amends. “Sincere” investments will acknowledge and accept responsibility for the harm caused by past failures to love communities of color and model genuinely new behavior by spending the time, talent and treasure required to renew and reconcile the relationship. “Sound” investments will overcome the damage to communities of color caused by “politically expedient” spending on entitlement programs such as Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid by getting resources out of Washington, D.C. and back into the private sector where they can be used productively to create businesses and jobs. “Good-faith” investments will make room at the decision table for members from communities of color and meet the physical needs of women, children and broken families without violating their religious convictions.

Epilogue

What I ask for the Negro is not benevolence, not pity, not sympathy, but simply justice.” — Frederick Douglass , “What The Black Man Wants” at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in Boston, April, 1865, Please note that Douglass’ speech was given within days of the close of the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln44


EpilogueIt’s interesting to note that January 2004 marked the death of Ernest Hendon, the last survivor of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Hendon was in the control group that did not have syphilis. He was 96 years old. It’s also interesting to note that January 2012 marked the 40th year since the termination of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Furthermore, it’s very interesting to note that January 2013 will mark the beginning of the 40th year of legalized abortion on demand that deliberately targets communities of color. As I earnestly reflect on these dates, I can’t help but wonder … Could all this just be interesting? Or am I seeing a pattern? To be more specific and more to the point … Could all this just be coincidence? Or am I actually seeing the reality of an old, evil and eugenic effort to eliminate communities of color still at work in America? In the privacy of my heart, I know the answer. Don’t you? In the privacy of our hearts, don’t we all know the answer?

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Note(s):

· Frequently Asked Questions Examining Tuskegee: Question: Why is it called the Tuskegee Study? Answer: “The formal title of the Study in its first medical publications was ‘Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro.’ Beginning in 1954, the publications after that called it ‘the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis‘ or ‘the Tuskegee Study.’ It is not uncommon to name medical studies after the geographic location where they are done. When the newspaper story on the Study broke in 1972, the AP reporter Jean Heller called it ‘the Tuskegee Study‘ and the term ‘the Tuskegee Experiment‘ is often used as well.” Source: http://bit.ly/Mq79nx.


Reference(s):

01. Presidential Apology, U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee (http://1.usa.gov/ckDD3i).
02. Tuskegee Experiment Test Subjects, “Biomedical Ephemera, Or: A Frog for Your Boils.” A photograph from this blog for all biological and medical ephemera, from the age of Abraham through the era of medical quackery and cure-all nostrums. (http://bit.ly/LolBMC).
03. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/17wadX).
04. Tuskegee University, “Impact on Health Care,” Quote from the Director of Venereal Diseases at the Public Health Service from 1943 to 1948 (http://bit.ly/Kr3e5a).
05. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/17wadX).
06. United States Public Health Service, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Md8wGN).
07. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/4XuFpf).
08. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/17wadX).
09. Ibid.
10. Ibid.
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Nuremberg Code, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/gJAsaS).
15. Penicillin, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/f57k5S).
16. Back to Tuskegee, by Jeanne Winstead, Slide No. 16. (http://slidesha.re/bXnCMq).
17. James Howard Jones, Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (http://bit.ly/KqQawS).
18. Ibid. (http://bit.ly/LcD4mt).
19. The Oslo Study of Untreated Syphilis Review and Commentary, British Journal of Venereal Diseases, June 1956; 32(2): 70–78 (http://1.usa.gov/O2jUpE).
20. Ibid.
21. The Oslo Study, “Faces of Tuskegee” by the Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Sciences at Michigan State University (http://bit.ly/MPqb2r).
22. Ibid., Dr. Taliaferro Clark (http://bit.ly/MBmi4R).
23. Ibid.
24. Alan Bellows, “Bad Blood In Tuskegee” (http://bit.ly/LduslJ).
25. Dave Wong and Stephanie Lord, “People of the Tuskegee Experiment” (http://bit.ly/LNGdiN). See also the LeNoir: Tuskegee Syphilis Study Lecture on video (http://bit.ly/KSpPhj).
26. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, “Study Clinicians” (http://bit.ly/MCVAHc).
27. Dave Wong and Stephanie Lord, “People of the Tuskegee Experiment,” Dr. Raymond H. Vonderlehr (http://bit.ly/LNGdiN).
28. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, “Study Clinicians,” Dr. John R. Heller led the national division (http://bit.ly/MCVAHc).
29. Aftermath of the Study, Dr. John R. Heller quote: (http://bit.ly/NtsIDV). See also New York Times, July 26, 1972, p1.
30. Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, “Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press” Dr. John Heller’s quote is in the chapter entitled: “The History of ‘Black Paranoia'” on page 67 (http://bit.ly/L0WfkY).
31. Peter Buxtun, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MIKtKF).
32. Ibid.
33. Ibid.
34. Study Termination, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MpOuFk).
35. Peter Buxtun, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MIKtKF).
36. Ibid.
37. Ibid. See also “Effects of untreated syphilis in the negro male, 1932 to 1972: A closure comes to the Tuskegee study, 2004,” by Shamim M. Baker, Otis W. Brawley and Leonard S. Marks of the Urological Sciences Research Foundation. The article by Jean Heller, front page, New York Times, July 26, 1972. Investigative journalism first brought the story to public attention (http://bit.ly/fmdoUN). This news story is the property of Associated Press via Valeo Intellectual Property, Inc.
38. Ibid.
39. Memorandum, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of The Secretary, Merlin K. DuVal, M.D. says: “As recommended by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel, I have decided that the ‘Tuskegee Study‘ as a study of untreated syphilis must be terminated.” (http://bit.ly/LolBMC).
40. Presidential Apology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee” (http://1.usa.gov/ckDD3i).
41. Ibid.
42. Roe v. Wade, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/11oVBK).
43. Al Sharpton, “It’s Not About Obama, It’s About Your Momma” (http://bit.ly/vYz55I).
44. Frederick Douglass, “What The Black Man Wants” at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society in Boston, April, 1865, Douglass delivered the following speech on the subject: The Equality Of All Men Before The Law. Again, please note that Douglass’ speech was given within days of the close of the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln. (http://bit.ly/LHwoOC).

Environmental Products (7)

In Abortion, Politics on June 18, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (7)

Black Wall Street

One Of The Worst Race Riots In Our Nation’s History Occurred In Tulsa.

“I took my little girl by the hand and fled out the west door on Greenwood. I did not take time to gat a hat for myself or baby, but started out north in Greenwood, running amidst showers of bullets from the machine gun located in the granay and from the men who were quickly surrounding our district.” — Mary E. Jones Parrish,, An eye-witness account of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot 1

Captured Negroes On The Way to Convention Hall During Tulsa Race Riot: June 1st 1921

According to the Tulsa Tribune, the National Guard mounted two machine guns
and fired into the area
. Black Americans surrendered and were disarmed.
They were taken in columns to Convention Hall, the McNulty Baseball Park, the Fairgrounds and to a flying field during the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. 2


Executive Summary

“The Worse Civil Disturbance Since The Civil War.” 3

“Personal belongings and household goods had been removed from many homes and piled in the streets. On the steps of the few houses that remained sat feeble and gray Negro men and women and occasionally a small child. The look in their eyes was one of dejection and supplication. Judging from their attitude, it was not of material consequence to them whether they lived or died. Harmless themselves, they apparently could not conceive the brutality and fiendishness of men who would deliberately set fire to the homes of their friends and neighbors and just as deliberately shoot them down in their tracks.” — Tulsa Daily World, June 2, 1921 4

National Guard Machine Gun TruckCommonly known as “Black Wall Street,” the racially segregated district of Greenwood in Tulsa was one of the most affluent All-Black Communities in the United States of America. 5 In its day, Greenwwod served as a powerful economic model of market-based approaches to abject poverty through private ownership, conservative values and self-sufficiency for Black Americans only one generation away from over four hundred (400) years of chattel antebellum slavery. 6 National Guard Machine Gun TruckThe area encompassed a population of 15,000 Black Americans7 However, in a matter of a fourteen (14) hour period, from Tuesday, May 31st, 1921 to Wednesday, June 1st, 1921, one of the worst race riots in the history of our nation destroyed a once thriving, thirty-five (35) square block Black Business District in northern Tulsa, Oklahoma. 8 Black Wall Street Child RescuerIn the end, 10,000 Black Americans were homeless, over 800 injuries were reported and over 600 successful Black Businesses were lost. 9 Among these businesses were twenty-one (21) churches, twenty-one (21) restaurants, thirty (30) grocery stores and two (2) movie theaters, plus a hospital, a bank, a post office, libraries, schools, law offices, a half-dozen private airplanes and even a bus system. 10 1,256 homes were reported burned and another The Death Of Dr. A. C. Jackson215 looted. 11 Property damage estimates ranging from 1.5 to 2 million dollars were reported which would amount to over twenty-one (21) million dollars in today’s money. 12 Of the thirty-seven (37) death certificates, twenty-five (25) were for Black males and twelve (12) for white males. While the true death toll will probably never be known, nine (9) Black victims were burned beyond recognition and could not identified. 13

Part One: Findings

On The Way To A Segregated “Colored” Restroom …

Tulsa Tribune Headline: “Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator”

“I shined shoes with Dick Rowland. He was an orphan and had quit school to take care of himself. The Drexel Building was the only place downtown where we were allowed to use the restroom. Dick was a quite kind of fella. Never in no trouble. When he went to use the bathroom…in the elevator he slipped and bumped her, she screamed, he ran, and was accused of raping a white woman. “In broad daylight?” The Tribune wrote a story that triggered the crowd at the Court House: “To lynch a Negro tonight.” The Tribune called him “Diamond Dick.” Me, or nobody on Greenwood ever heard that name for him before. They invented it. Dick Rowland was poor as me. Neither of us probably ever saw a real diamond.” — Robert Fairchild, Sr., The oral account of a Black American eyewitness of the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 14

Black Wall StreetTulsa, Oklahoma was a segregated city where Jim Crow practices were live and legal. Black Americans were not allowed to use toilet facilities used by White people15 There was no separate facility for Black Americans at the shoeshine parlor where Dick Rowland worked. 16 So the owner of the parlor arranged for Black American employees to use the segregated “Colored” restroom on the top floor of the nearby Drexel Building at 319 S. Main Street where the Renberg’s Department Store occupied the first two floors. 17 On Monday, May 30th, 1921, Dick Rowland, a Black American believed to be nineteen (19), entered the Drexel building elevator to access the “Colored Only” restroom where he tripped, and while falling, latched on to the arm of the White elevator operator, Sarah Page, then seventeen (17) years old. 18 Startled, Sarah screamed and a White clerk in a first floor store called the police and reported seeing Dick Rowland flee from the elevator and out of the building. 19 The White clerk on the first floor described the incident as an attempted assault. 20 Subsequently, Dick Rowland was arrested on Tuesday, May 31st, 1921. 21 According to the Tulsa World, “[Dick] Rowland‘s arrest the next morning was reported in a front-page story in that afternoon’s Tulsa Tribune. Headlined ‘Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator,’ the somewhat sensational account reported, accurately if perhaps imprudently, that [Dick] Rowland was to be charged with attempted assault. 22 It said [Dick] Rowland scratched [Sarah] Page and tore her clothes.” 23 While in custody, White citizens concerned for the safety of White women attempted to lynch Dick Rowland24 and Black citizens concerned for Dick Rowland’s life attempted to protect him 25 and the Tulsa, Oklahoma Race Riot of 1921 was on.

Part Two: The Aftermath

The Klu Klux Klan Benefited From The Riot

The “Assault” Case Against Dick Rowland Was Dropped

Black Wall StreetIn the early 1900s the economic prosperity of Black Americans was often realized amidst violent racial and political tension. 26 In Oklahoma the Klu Klux Klan made its first major appearance shortly before the riot in Tulsa. 27 It has been estimated that there were about 3,200 members of the Klu Klux Klan in Tulsa in 192128 As to be expected, researchers suspect that the incendiary impetus behind the riot in Tulsa was the Klu Klux Klan working in consort with ranking city officials and other sympathizers. However, it is interesting to note, that in the same month the case against Dick Rowland was dropped following the Black Wall Streetreceipt of a letter from Sarah Page to Tulsa county attorney, John Seaver where she stated that she did not wish to prosecute the case, 29 a large Klu Klux Klan rally was held at Convention Hall. 30 Just three (3) months after the Riot, Wednesday, August 31st, 1921 in a private ceremony 300 Tulsans, supported by a throng of 1,500 onlookers, were initiated as the first class of the Tulsa Klan No. 2. 31 By September 1921 twenty (20) hooded vigilantes “bullwhipped” a suspected bootlegger, car thief and hijacker Black Wall StreetJ. E. Frazier. Tulsa county attorney, John Seaver praised the Klu Klux Klan, intimated that Frazier probably got what he deserved and twelve (12) more “bullwhippings” followed. With the attack on Frazier, Tulsa’s Klu Klux Klan era was in full throttle. 32 In January of 1922, the Tulsa Benevolent Association of Tulsa, Oklahoma, a holding company for the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Inc. was formed. 33 Washington E. Hudson, the attorney for Dick Rowland, was noted among the founding members of the Tulsa Benevolent Association, where in a field north of Owasso, Oklahoma, a Black Wall Streetnighttime “naturalization” ceremony initiated 1,020 Tulsa Klavern members before a fiery, 70-by-20 foot cross34 Founding members provided the financing and leadership necessary to build the Klu Klux Klan’s temple, or Klavern, known as Beno Hall. It is reported that the locals jokingly called it “Be No Hall,” as in “Be No Nigger, Be No Jew, Be No Catholic, Be No Immigrant.” 35 By March 1922 Klu Klux Klan abducted and “bullwhippedJohn K. Smitherman, Black Wall Streeta prominent Black American. The Klu Klux Klan cut off a piece of his ear and tried to force Smitherman to eat it. 36 By April 1922 , more than 1,700 Klu Klux Klan members marched through downtown Tulsa while an airplane carrying an electrically lighted cross flew overhead. 37 In that spring’s city elections, Klu Klux Klan candidates swept every office, and did the same when county elections came around in the fall. 38 Between November 1921 and July 1923, according to formal indictments, thirty (31) Tulsans, Black Wall Streeteveryone an admitted Klansman were involved in twelve (12) “bullwhipping” events in the Tulsa. 39 By August 1923, just two (2) years after the riot, Oklahoma’s anti-klan, Democratic Governor, John Calloway “Jack” Walton (who would later be impeached), declared martial law in Tulsa County because of Klu Klux Klan activity. 40 Looking back, one can easily see how wise a decision it was for Dick Rowland to leave Tulsa immediately after he was freed. 41

Conclusion

An Open Letter To Black America

Black Wall Street Is The Model For Our Economic Success

THE NEGRO CANNOT WIN … if he is willing to sell the future of his children for his personal and immediate comfort and safety.” — Martin Luther King, Jr. (“The Living King”, Ebony, Vol. 41, No. 3, January 1986, Page 63.) 42

Black Wall Street Greenwood AvenueIn 1921 Black Wall Street, in the Greenwood Section of Tulsa, Oklahoma, was home to over 600 successful Black American businesses. Built by the blood and sweat of former slaves who traveled along the “Trail of Tears” to resettlement camps in Oklahoma and ironically aided by Jim Crow laws that forced the Black Community to become self-sustaining and interdependent, Black Wall Street became more than a bona fide “rags to riches” story. 43 Black Wall Street, in the midst of a corrupt and moraly bankrupt country, transformed into a proven economic model and blue print Black Wall Street Black Businessfor a productive, prosperous and secure future. According to David Reeves, an adjunct professor at San Francisco State University in the Afro Studies Department, a Black Wall Street “dollar circulated 36 to 1,000 times, sometimes taking a year for currency to leave the community. Now in 1995, a dollar leaves the Black community in fifteen (15) minutes.” 44 According to John and Maggie Anderson, founders of The Empowerment Experiment (formerly called the “Ebony Experiment“), despite the nearly $1 trillion dollars of buying power in Black America, for every dollar that Black Americans spend, only $0.02 cents Black Wall Street Grocery Storeare invested into Black-owned businesses. The Andersons advocate buying from Black-owned businesses to rebuild our community, schools, tax base and revitalize our workforce. 45 John Malveaux, President of the Long Beach Central Area Association, agreeing with the Andersons puts it this way; “there is a need to bring back some sense of cohesiveness in the [Black] community, not only culturally but economically. 46 I agree. Malveaux is spot on. Practically speaking, with only $0.02 cents of every dollar of our buying power left in our community, $0.98 cents of every dollar we spend is being Black Wall Street Buying And Sellingused by those who would oppress us. Essentially, we’re funding our own demise and I have to wonder if we’ve lost our mind? Are we so dependent upon the government’s dole that we can no longer discern the difference between life and death? Are we so deep in debt, so desperate and despondent in our disenfranchisement and disposition that we’ve abandoned the bloody lessons learned from the legacy of Black Wall Street and bought into the vicious vote buying schemes inherent in liberal policies? Star Parker, Founder and President of C.U.R.E., the Center for Urban Renewal and Education, in her “Memo to Romney” expands Black Wall Street Prosperitythe discussion when she says; “getting off Uncle Sam’s Plantation is no longer a problem limited to our poor. It is a problem and challenge for the whole country.” 47 Here’s my Memo to the Congressional Black Caucus: Capitalism for the rich and Socialism for the poor has not, does not and never, ever will work. It is long, long past time we got off Uncle Sam’s Plantation.” Booker Taliaferro Washington, championed biblically moral character, personal responsibility, education and economic empowerment. 48 He was prophetic when he said: “The greatness of a nation in the future will be measured not by Black Wall Street Memorialthe vessels that it floats, but by the number of schools and churches and useful industries that it keeps in existence. It will be measured not by the number of men killed, but by the number of men saved and lifted up.” 49 Here is my bottom line: When we (i.e., Black American consumers and entrepreneurs) invest in each other by way of the time tested and proven promises of market-based public policies that promote private property, personal responsibility, and limited government we fight poverty. When we live by biblical values, such as abstinence, education, faith, family and freedom, to protect biblically defined marriage, parental rights, the lives of our women and the life of our children inside the wombs of their mothers we please God. When we please God, we win.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Reference(s):

01. Tulsa Race Riot, “Re-examine the Riot,” Produced by the American Studies Program, Oklahoma State University (http://bit.ly/KFHOHK). See also Parrish, Mary E. Jones. An Eye-Witness Account of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot by Mrs. Mary E. Jones Parrish as published in 1923: John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation, 2009 Edition.
02. 1921 Tulsa Race Riot: captured men. Photo by Tulsa Historical Society: “Black detainees are led to the Convention Hall following a race riot in Tulsa, Okla, June 1, 1921. The National Guard rounded up blacks by the thousands and took them to the fairgrounds, the Convention Hall and a baseball stadium where they were given food and water. By day’s end, many thriving black businesses in a 35-block area had been torched.” (http://bit.ly/MOZn2V).
03. Tulsa Reparations Coalition, Prologue and quote by State Representative Don Ross, “Tulsa Race Riot — A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921″ (http://bit.ly/Md5IE1).
04. Tulsa Race Riot Report, The Final Report of the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, February 28, 2001 (http://bit.ly/LSs3fq).
05. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, “The Black Wall Street,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/b9PcZ8).
06. Randy Krehbiel, World Staff Writer, “The Questions That Remain, A conversation about Tulsa’s Race Riot and racism today” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L). See also “Slavery in America — History.Com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts.” Quote: “Slavery in America began when the first African slaves were brought to the North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619, to aid in the production of such lucrative crops as tobacco.” (http://bit.ly/dERwex).
07. “The Eruption of Tulsa“: An NAACP Official Investigates the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (http://bit.ly/I7zidR).
08. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “Timeline” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L).
09. Tulsa Race Riot, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/2Cp2CU).
10. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, The Tulsa Race Riot, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/h0pbkE).
11. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Aftermath, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MEOcZS).
12. The 25 Worst Riots of All Time, #9 Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (http://bit.ly/8Wa3pa).
13. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “The Toll” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L).
14. Tulsa Race Riot, “Meet the Survivors,” Robert Fairchild, Sr. (http://bit.ly/LhqEQa).
15. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow, Jim Crow Stories, “Tulsa Riot (1921)” (http://to.pbs.org/Lrb9SE).
16. African–American Resource Center, Tulsa Race Riot Timeline with Maps, “The Seeds of Catastrophe”, May 31st, 1921 (http://bit.ly/NtmOos).
17. Dick Rowland, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Mdyogj).
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. The Tulsa Tribune, “Nab Negro for Attacking Girl In an Elevator,” Tuesday, May 31st, 1921 (http://bit.ly/c49bGW).
23. Ibid.
24. Dick Rowland, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Mdyogj).
25. Scott Ellsworth, “The Tulsa Race Riot — History Does Not Take Place In A Vacuum” (http://bit.ly/Ne6fN).
26. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, “The Black Wall Street,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/b9PcZ8).
27. Ibid.
28. Ibid.
29. Dick Rowland, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Mdyogj).
30. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “The Aftermath” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L).
31. Historical Atlas of Oklahoma, by Charles Robert Goins, Danney Goble, James H. Anderson, “Reported Incidents Involving The Ku Klux Klan, By County” (http://bit.ly/LSXKFw). See also Scott Ellsworth, “The Tulsa Race Riot — History Does Not Take Place In A Vacuum” (http://bit.ly/Ne6fN).
32. Beno Hall: Tulsa’s Den Of Terror, by Steve Gerkin, September 3rd, 2011 (http://bit.ly/MdPVov).
33. Ibid.
34. Ibid.
35. Ibid.
36. Historical Atlas of Oklahoma, by Charles Robert Goins, Danney Goble, James H. Anderson, “Reported Incidents Involving The Ku Klux Klan, By County” (http://bit.ly/LSXKFw).
37. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “The Aftermath” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L).
38. Ibid. See also The House of Kerr of Ardgowan, The Grandfather Kerr Clan. Quote: “The enormous economic power and political leverage of Tulsa’s oil establishment has always managed to suppress much public knowledge of the 1921 Tulsa Race War … or the complete Ku Klux Klan political takeover of Oklahoma after the November 1923 impeachment of Oklahoma’s courageous anti-Klan Governor Jack Walton orchestrated by Richard Lloyd Jones.” (http://bit.ly/MdTEm6). See also Tulsa Race Riot Survivors Sue Tulsa Tribune, by Attorney Jim Lloyd of Tulsa represents the survivors, Dated: Friday, May 30th, 2003, Here’s the case: “On the eve of the 83rd anniversary of the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, survivors of the Riot are filing a civil lawsuit in the Western US District Court, Kansas City Missouri, naming the Tulsa Tribune newspaper, the Estate of Editor and Publisher Richard Lloyd Jones Sr., the Estates and Family Trusts of Jones Family members and members of the Ku Klux Klan organization in Tulsa for their deliberate actions that started one of the worst race riots in American history.” (http://bit.ly/NEmDW9).
39. Historical Atlas of Oklahoma, by Charles Robert Goins, Danney Goble, James H. Anderson, “Reported Incidents Involving The Ku Klux Klan, By County” (http://bit.ly/LSXKFw).
40. Race Riot: Timeline | Tulsa World, “The Aftermath” (http://bit.ly/kmOj2L). See also Governor of Oklahoma (http://bit.ly/MEUNn6) and Impeachment (http://bit.ly/NtU3rE). See also Hiram Wesley Evans, the Imperial Wizard who “devoted funds to fighting Jack C. Walton, the anti-Klan governor of Oklahoma; to the group’s joy, Walton was impeached and removed from office in 1923.” (http://bit.ly/K8RILU).
41. Dick Rowland, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Mdyogj).
42. Martin Luther King, Jr., “The Living King”, Ebony, Vol. 41, No. 3, January 1986, Page 63 (http://bit.ly/LzCLHI). See also Stride Toward Freedom by Martin Luther King, Jr.: “The Negro cannot win the respect of his oppressor by acquiescing; he merely increases the oppressor’s arrogance and contempt. Acquiescence is interpreted as proof of the Negro’s inferiority. The Negro cannot win respect of the white people of the South or the peoples of the world if he is willing to sell the future of his children for his personal and immediate comfort and safety.” (http://bit.ly/LccWus).
43. Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, The Roots, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MgPqdj). See also “Burning of Greenwood, Oklahoma – The Black Wall Street” by Samuel Black: “Based on the growth of African-Americans in Greenwood, Jim Crow laws legalizing segregation were passed in 1908.” (http://bit.ly/bVsusN).
44. David Reeves, “What Is Black Wallstreet?” (http://bit.ly/1Q5eOf).
45. Black Dollars, Support Black Businesses, by Dianne Anderson, Precinct Reporter Group, (http://bit.ly/LbcJKa).
46. Ibid.
47. Star Parker, author of “Uncle Sam’s Plantation: How Big Government Enslaves America’s Poor and What We Can Do About It” (http://amzn.to/MPW4sh). Star Parker is the founder and president of CURE, the Center for Urban Renewal and Education (http://bit.ly/8EtAxr), a 501(c)(3) non-profit think tank which promotes market based public policy to fight poverty. Hear ye her in: “Memo to Romney: Whole nation is on government plantation” (http://bit.ly/xaEPsR).
48. Booker T. Washington, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/1qr4J).
49. Vote God, is committed to motivating and mobilizing people of Faith to amply … Vote! Recent statistics show, 75% of “people of Faith” don’t vote! This will change, and MUST change this year (2012)! The earth groans and God stands, waiting for “people of Faith” to take a STAND for Him! Visit us on Facebook here: http://on.fb.me/KBRliU or stop by our website here: http://bit.ly/KIgp34.

Environmental Products (6)

In Abortion, Politics on June 11, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (6)

Brown v. Board of Education

This decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896.

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal Troops

The 101st Airborne Division (the “Screaming Eagles”), a U.S. Army modular light infantry division trained for air assault operations, escorted the Little Rock Nine students into the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. 1


Once Again Federal Troops Were Required

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal TroopsIn 1871 it took Republican President Ulysses S. Grant ordering federal troops to suppress the race–based para–military violence of the Klu Klux Klan against Black Americans in the Solid Democratic South so we could participate in the American Dream.· 2 In October of 1957, history repeated itself as it again took a Republican President (Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower) ordering federal troops to suppress race–based segregation supported by Democratic Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus who ordered the National Guard to block nine (9) Black American students from entering Little Rock Central High School so they could participate in the American Dream.· 3

The Backdrop

School Segregation BannedIn 1954 Brown v. Board of Education (i.e., “Brown I“) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” and that any state laws establishing separate public schools for Black and White students were unconstitutional. 4 This unanimous (9–0) decision, handed down on Friday, May 17th, 1954 by the Earl Warren Court, overturned the Melville Fuller Court’s infamous Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 5 which held “‘separate but equal‘ provision of private services mandated by state government is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause,” thus legalizing state–sponsored segregation.

A Supreme Presumption Of Faith

An Integrated School In 1954In 1955 the United States Supreme Court delegated the task of integrating schools to district courts with orders that desegregation occur “with all deliberate speed.” 6 However, many southern states interpreted Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 349 U.S. 294 (Tuesday, May 31st, 1955) (i.e., “Brown II“) as legal justification for resisting, delaying, and avoiding integration for years. 7 Using tactics such as closing down school systems, using state money to finance segregated “private schools,” and “token” integration where a few carefully selected Black children were admitted to former white-only schools, leaving the vast majority of Black students in underfunded and unequal Black schools. 8 So much for having faith in the system.

The Brown II Backstep

1956 Klu Klux Klan Child ProtestorBy 1956 Massive Resistance movements or the “Freedom of Choice” plans ruled the day. 9 These policies, backed by United States Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. and other White politicians and leaders in the state of Virginia in a campaign of new state laws designed to prevent public school desegregation after the Brown I decision in 1954. 10 I wonder where I’ve heard the expression: “Freedom of Choice” before? ··

Case In Point: Alabama

Alabama Billboard: Impeach Earl Warren!On Monday, November 24th, 1958 the same Warren Court that ruled “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” in Brown I quietly upheld the Alabama pupil placement law which sets up seventeen (17) separate standards for assigning pupils to public schools, as non-discriminatory on its face (Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham Board of Education, 162 F. Supp. 372). 11 This decision gave those resisting integration a legal way around the 1954 Brown I decision. While never mentioning race, Alabama legally implemented subjective measurements such as the psychological qualification of the pupil for the type of teaching and associates involved, the possibility of threat of friction or disorder, the possibility of breaches of the peace or ill will or economic retaliation within the community, and the maintenance or severance of established social and psychological relationships with other pupils and with teachers to determine if a student was the right fit for a school. 12

Case In Point: Virginia

Prince Edward Students Demand Their School Be Re-Opened!In Virginia the United States District Court ruled that Prince Edward County, Virginia did not have to desegregate immediately. 13 So when faced with a court order to finally begin desegregation the Prince Edward County board of supervisors stopped funding public schools for five (5) years (1959–1964) and implemented pupil placement lawswith all deliberate speed.” 14 Under pupil placement laws White students in the Prince Edward County were given financial assistance to attend White-only private academies that were taught by teachers formerly employed by the public school system, while Black students had no education at all unless they moved out of the Prince Edward County. 15

So What Happened In Arkansas?

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal TroopsThe Little Rock Nine was a group of Black American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 195716 The Black American students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Democratic Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus17 However, it was after Republican President Eisenhower federalized the entire 10,000 member Arkansas National Guard, effectively taking the threat violence out of the hands of Democratic Governor Faubus that the Black American students were able to safely attend class despite White Citizens Council mobs making threats to lynch them. 18

The Lost Year

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal TroopsBy the end of September 1957, the Little Rock Nine were admitted to Little Rock Central High under the protection of the U.S. Army and the Arkansas National Guard. 19 Nevertheless, they were still subjected to a year of physical and verbal abuse (i.e., being spat on and called names) by many of their fellow White students20 From August 1958 to August 1959 the Federal Courts ruled against Democratic Governor Faubus’ efforts to delay de–segregation, only to see him pass legislation that enabled him to close all public schools so he could set up private schools for White students, only to see three (3) segregation supporting school board members voted out of office and the public schools reopened on Wednesday, August 12th, 195921 Although the Lost Year had ended, the Black students who returned to the high schools had to get past lynch mobs to enter the school and suffer physical and emotional abuse. 22

Looking Forward To The Civil Rights Movement

The Little Rock Nine Escorted By Federal TroopsBy 1959 Martin Luther King, Jr., had visited Gandhi’s birthplace, wrote the “Measure of a Man,” received the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for his book “Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story,” met Vice President Richard Nixon and said: “If Richard Nixon is not sincere, he is the most dangerous man in America.” 23 By the end of August of 1959 I was three (3) years old.

Is Violence Necessary To Combat Injustice?

“The Negro people can organize socially to initiate many forms of struggle which can drive their enemies back without resort to futile and harmful violence.” — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., The Southern Patriot debate with North Carolina NAACP leader Robert F. Williams 24

The Southern Patriot: For The Negative: King Sees Alternative In Mass Actions

 

The Southern Patriot

Published in the October 1959 Edition of The Southern Patriot, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. debated North Carolina NAACP leader Robert F. Williams and wrote the following as he addressed the United States Supreme Court upholding the Pupil Placement Law and the ever present need for Federal action25

“For The Negative: King Sees Alternative In Mass Actions”

MLK Being Booked Into JailParadoxically, the struggle for civil rights has reached a stage of profound crisis, although its outward aspect is distinctly less turbulent and victories of token integration have been won in the hard-resistance areas of Virginia and Arkansas. The crisis has its origin in a decision rendered by the Supreme Court more than a year ago which upheld the pupil placement law. Though little noticed then, this decision fundamentally weakened the historic 1954 ruling of the Court. It is imperceptibly becoming the basis of a de facto compromise between the powerful contending forces. The 1954 decision required for effective implementation resolute Federal action supported by mass action to undergird all necessary changes. It is obvious that Federal action by the legislative and executive branches was half-hearted and inadequate. The activity of Negro forces, while heroic in some instances, and impressive in other sporadic situations, lacked consistency and militancy sufficient to fill the void left by government default. The segregationists were swift to seize these advantages, and unrestrained by moral or social conscience, defied the law boldly and brazenly. The net effect of this social equation has led to the present situation, which is without clearcut victory for either side. Token integration is a developing pattern. This type of integration is merely an affirmation of a principle without the substance of change. It is, like the Supreme Court decision, a pronouncement of justice, but by itself does not insure that the millions of Negro children will be educated in conditions of equality. This is not to say that it is without value. It has substantial importance. However, it fundamentally changes the outlook of the whole movement, for it raises the prospect of long, slow change without a predictable end.” 26

I agree with Dr. King. Don’t you?

Supreme Court Decisions And Federal Troops Are Not Enough

“The Negro cannot win … if he is willing to sell the future of his children for his personal and immediate comfort and safety.” — Martin Luther King, Jr. (“The Living King”, Ebony, Vol. 41, No. 3, January 1986, Page 63.) 27

I am often asked about Black American leadership’s devotion to government welfare programs and our acrimonious relationship with the Pro-Life movement. Specifically, I am asked why Black American leadership cannot see the obvious correlation and natural relationship between the Civil Rights movement and the Pro-Life movement. The answer lies in the fact that much of Pro-Life movement is consumed with developing political equity and reversing United States Supreme Court decisions instead of moving the hearts and minds of people by meeting the need of women and children. The Little Rock Nine are the latest case in point in this series of columns. Neither United States Supreme Court decisions nor political equity was enough overcome the evil in the heart of segregationists.

Why?

I believe Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. would have put it this way:

It is obvious that Federal action by the legislative and executive branches [is] half-hearted and inadequate. The activity of Negro forces, while heroic in some instances, and impressive in other sporadic situations, lacked consistency and militancy sufficient to fill the void left by government default. The [Pro-Abortionists] were swift to seize these advantages, and unrestrained by moral or social conscience, [defined] the law boldly and brazenly. The net effect of this social equation has led to the present situation [i.e., life versus death], which is without clearcut victory for either side. Token [Pro-Life gains] is a developing pattern. This type of [progress] is merely an affirmation of a principle without the substance of change. It is, like the Supreme Court decision [of 1973], a [bold] pronouncement of [“reproductive justicefor women], but by itself does not insure that the millions of Negro [women and children will live] in conditions of equality. This is not to say that [political equity and United States Supreme Court decisions are] without value. [Both have] substantial importance. However, [emphasis on either] fundamentally changes the outlook of the whole [Pro-Life] movement, for it raises the prospect of long, slow change without a predictable end.”

Forty (40) Years And Over Fifty-Five (55) Million Lives And Counting

No community or people group can survive without their women and children living in conditions of equality. In the last forty (40) years, with the exception of Personhood28 not one Pro-Life strategy to end abortion has been embraced by communities of color. As a member of a community of color and with the survival of our women and children at stake and on my heart, I am concerned that another forty (40) years of the “art of compromise” 29 and half-hearted court decisions will indeed mark the end of my people. 30

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Note(s):
· American Dream:” The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States; a set of ideals in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, and an upward social mobility achieved through hard work. In the definition of the American Dream by James Truslow Adams in 1931, ‘life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievementregardless of social class or circumstances of birth. The idea of the American Dream is rooted in the United States Declaration of Independence which proclaims that ‘all men are created equal ‘ and that they are ‘endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights ‘ including ‘Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness .'” Review online reference here: http://bit.ly/12DcrM
·· Abortion Debate: “The abortion debate refers to the ongoing controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of abortion. The two main groups involved in the abortion debate are the self-described ‘pro-choice‘ movement (emphasizing the right of women to choose whether they wish to bring a fetus to term) and the self-described ‘pro-life‘ movement (emphasizing the right of the unborn child to be born).” Review online reference here: http://bit.ly/2euSAf.


Reference(s):

01. 101st Airborne at Little Rock Central High, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/iJ7AqI).
02. Ulysses S. Grant, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/110cKI). See also American Dream note above.
03. Orval Faubus, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/LpnYgs). See also Little Rock Nine, Armed Escort, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/LrdMEg).
04. Brown v. Board of Education, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/mK1Nv).
05. Plessy v. Ferguson, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/mMv0D).
06. Brown II, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP).
07. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (349 U.S. 294), Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP). See also Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, 377 U.S. 218 (1964), Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KI7JOI).
08. Circumventing Brown ruling by new state efforts to maintain segregation, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Lc7V5h). See also Brown II, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP).
09. Massive Resistance, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/G1WN6). See also Freedom of Choice: Most public schools remain segregated, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MXV2QI).
10. Ibid.
11. About the Pupil Placement Law, The King Center’s Blog (http://mysp.ac/Lpv8RL). See also THE SUPREME COURT: Presumption of Faith, Time Magazine, Monday, December 8th, 1958 (http://ti.me/8Pm08T).
12. Ibid.
13. Brown II, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP).
14. Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, Background (http://bit.ly/Nq4Php).
15. Brown II, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KWXnbP). See also Smith, Bob (1965). They Closed Their Schools. University of North Carolina Press (http://bit.ly/LpyC6N).
16. Little Rock Nine, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/9KjkVR).
17. Orval Faubus, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/LpnYgs). See also Armed Escort, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/MwiCxi).
18. The Lost Year, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/LJyg9Y).
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. Nixon, Richard Milhous (1913-1994), King Encyclopedia (http://bit.ly/LfSO9g).
24. Marting Luther King, Jr., And The Global Freedom Struggle, “The Social Organization of Nonviolence”, October 1959 (http://bit.ly/KqRZJD).
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.

27. Martin Luther King, Jr., “The Living King”, Ebony, Vol. 41, No. 3, January 1986, Page 63 (http://bit.ly/LzCLHI). See also Stride Toward Freedom by Martin Luther King, Jr.: “The Negro cannot win the respect of his oppressor by acquiescing; he merely increases the oppressor’s arrogance and contempt. Acquiescence is interpreted as proof of the Negro’s inferiority. The Negro cannot win respect of the white people of the South or the peoples of the world if he is willing to sell the future of his children for his personal and immediate comfort and safety.” (http://bit.ly/LccWus).

28. What is Personhood?, PersonhoodUSA (http://bit.ly/fuMEMw).
29. Donald J. Boudreaux and Dwight R. Lee , “Politics as the Art of Confined Compromise” (http://bit.ly/c0XxHS).
30. Salman Nizami, “No Society Can Survive Without Women, The Practice Of Female Foeticideis A Violation Of Human Rights”, published Wednesday, May 18th, 2011 (http://bit.ly/JUNpU9).

Environmental Products (5)

In Abortion, Politics on June 4, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (5)

Plessy versus Ferguson

The United States Supreme Court in 1896

The 1896-1897 U.S. Supreme Court Justices

The members of the United States Supreme Court, 1896–1897. Under Chief Justice Melville Fuller, this Court established the “Separate–But–Equal” doctrine in a 7 to 1 decision on Monday, May 18th, 1896. Courtesy of the U.S. Supreme Court. 1


Executive Summary

Plessy V. Ferguson 1896 Book CoverHomer Adolph Plessy was born on St. Patrick’s Day in 1862, when Union troops under General Benjamin Franklin Butler had freed Black Americans in New Orleans. At that time Black Americans could then marry whomever they chose, sit in any streetcar seat, and even attend integrated schools. However, as a thirty (30) year–old adult, Plessy found that those gains from the American Civil War (1862–1865) and the Radical Reconstruction of the South (1863–1877) were abolished after Union troops were withdrawn in the Republican Compromise of 18772

The Facts Of The Matter

According to the One-Drop Rule, any American with African ancestry (i.e., any person with even “one drop of black blood“) was considered a Black American. 3 So when Mr. Plessy, who was 1/8 Black American4 a Shoemaker, an insurance collector, a civil rights activist and a member of the Republican Party5 attempted to sit in an All–White railroad car, he was arrested for violating an 1890 Louisiana statute that provided for segregated “separate but equal” railroad accommodations. Black Americans using facilities not designated for their race were criminally liable under the statute. At trial with Justice John Howard Ferguson 6 presiding, Mr. Plessy was found guilty on the grounds that the law was a reasonable exercise of the state’s police powers based upon the social customs, usages, and the antebellum traditions in Louisiana.

The Question Before The Court

Can the states constitutionally enact legislation requiring persons of different races to use “separate but equal” segregated facilities?

The Answer And Decision From The Court

Yes. The states can constitutionally enact legislation requiring persons of different races to use “separate but equal” segregated facilities. Judgment for Ferguson (i.e., Plessy loses).

A Note Looking Forward

This case was overruled fifty–eight (58) years later by Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, 74 S. Ct. 686, 98 L. Ed. 873 (1954). 7

The Justices Of The United States Supreme Court in 1896

The judges and lawyers, — simply as such, I mean, — and all men of expediency, try this case by a very low and incompetent standard. They consider, not whether the Fugitive Slave Law is right, but whether it is what they call constitutional. Is virtue constitutional, or vice? Is equity constitutional, or iniquity? In important moral and vital questions like this, it is just as impertinent to ask whether a law is constitutional or not, as to ask whether it is profitable or not. They persist in being the servants of the worst of men, and not the servants of humanity. The question is not whether you or your grandfather, seventy years ago, did not enter into an agreement to serve the devil, and that service is not accordingly now due; but whether you will not now, for once and at last, serve God, in spite of your own past recreancy, or that of your ancestor, — by obeying that eternal and only just CONSTITUTION, which He, and not any Jefferson or Adams, has written in your being.” — Henry David Thoreau, from his 1854 essay entitled: “Slavery in Massachusetts” based on a speech he gave at an anti–slavery rally at Framingham, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1854, after the re–enslavement in Boston, Massachusetts of fugitive slave Anthony Burns. 8

The Majority Opinion

Henry Billings Brown Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court“That [the Separate Car Act] does not conflict with the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery … is too clear for argument … A statute which implies merely a legal distinction between the white and colored races — a distinction which is founded in the color of the two races, and which must always exist so long as white men are distinguished from the other race by color — has no tendency to destroy the legal equality of the two races … The object of the [Fourteenth A]mendment was undoubtedly to enforce the absolute equality of the two races before the law, but in the nature of things it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory to either.” — Henry Billings Brown, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court 9

The Lone Dissenting Opinion

John Marshall Harlan Associate Justice of the United States Supreme CourtOur Constitution is color–blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law … In my opinion, the judgment this day rendered will, in time, prove to be quite as pernicious as the decision made by this tribunal in the Dred Scott case … The present decision, it may well be apprehended, will not only stimulate aggressions, more or less brutal and irritating, upon the admitted rights of colored citizens, but will encourage the belief that it is possible, by means of state enactments, to defeat the beneficient purposes which the people of the United States had in view when they adopted the recent amendments of the Constitution.” — John Marshall Harlan, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court 10

Background Notes On The 1896 Justices

Stephen Johnson Field
Associate Justice Field was nominated to the United States Supreme Court by Abraham Lincoln (Republican). 11

Edward Douglass White, Jr.
Associate Justice White was nominated to the United States Supreme Court by Grover Cleveland (Democrat) in 1894, but was elevated to serve as the 9th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1910 by William Howard Taft (Republican). 12

Henry Billings Brown (Author of the Majority Opinion)
Associate Justice Brown hired a substitute to take his place in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and instead served as a federal prosecutor. 13

David Josiah Brewer
Plessy versus Ferguson was a 7 to 1 decision because Associate Justice Brewer, did not participate in the decision, due to the death of his daughter. 14

The 1896 Justices By The Numbers

  6  : Were Republicans
  6  : Were Nominated By Republican Presidents
  9  : Were Adults During The American Civil War (1861–1865)
  5  : Were Members Of A Mainstream Christian Denomination

The Appointment of Supremely Empty Promises

The real difference between the United States and other nations lies not in the worlds of the preamble to the Constitution, but in the fact that the substantive clauses of the Constitution are enforced by individuals independent of and not beholden to the elected branches.” — Judge Harold H. Greene, a federal judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia who was nominated by President James Earl “Jimmy” Carter, Jr. in 1978. 15


Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Cartoon by Stus.ComFor years political analysts have pointed out that the prevailing power of the presidency lies in the office holder’s United States Supreme Court appointments. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land, interpreting the “Supreme Law” of the land. As the Judicial Branch of our government, 16 the Supreme Court stands as the final word on matters of law and balances the powers of both the Legislative and Executive branches. Once the Supreme Court has made a decision, no other court can overturn or even review that decision. The average justice serves for fourteen (14) years and retires at age seventy-one (71). 17 Supreme Court justices are appointed for life so they never have to face re–election or make sure that their decisions please the president who appointed them. 18


Note To The Republican Party’s Leadership Team

It’s easy to say Supreme Court appointments are important and it’s easy to see how a President’s nomination(s) to the Supreme Court can profoundly impact our lives. However, historically and heinously these “supreme appointments” have harmed the lives of Black Americans. Regardless of the political party that nominated the Court’s justices, Black Americans, Native Americans and Disabled Americans have suffered by way of Supreme Court decisions. You cannot influence the hearts and minds of the members in oppressed communities, to vote for your Presidential candidate on the basis of future Supreme Court appointments. It just won’t work. We’ve heard that, seen that, been there and done that before.

Here’s A Grand Old Adage For The Grand Old Party’s Leadership

We don’t care how much you know — until we know how much you care.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Reference(s):

01. Rebecca Edwards, Vassar College “The Supreme Court in 1896” (http://bit.ly/MaB3uN). See also The Fuller Court.jpg, Wikimedia Commons (http://bit.ly/LdTKxm). This photograph has been photoshopped to reflect the image of Associate Justice Stephen J. Field from California instead of Associate Justice Joseph McKenna from California.
02. Plessy v. Ferguson, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/mMv0D).
03. One-drop rule, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KSACx).
04. Plessy v. Ferguson, Wiki Historia (http://bit.ly/M256W1).
05. Homer Plessy, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/bIvaop).
06. John Howard Ferguson, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/M1L2Px).
07. Brown v. Board of Education, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/mK1Nv).
08. The Writing Of Henry David Thoreau: with bibliographical introductions and full indexes, Volume 10 (http://bit.ly/KuHGtD).
09. Plessy v. Ferguson 1892, United States of American Chronology (http://bit.ly/Qyonf).
10. ibid.
11. Stephen Johnson Field, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KuL47N).
12. Edward Douglass White, Jr., Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Le4Xde).
13. Henry Billings Brown, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/gpPnnd).
14. David Josiah Brewer, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KZyivl).
15. Elected v. Appointed Judges; Which Selection Process is Best?, Landmark Supreme Court Decision, Margaret (Marnie) Brown and Professor Theodore Myhre, University of Washington (http://bit.ly/KIZNec). See also Harold H. Greene, Wikipedia http://bit.ly/eQdjja).
16. The Judicial Branch, The White House (http://1.usa.gov/bYqzsp).
17. Ed Grabianowski, “How Supreme Court Appointments Work”, HowStuffWorks, Inc. (http://bit.ly/bpq1I2).
18. Ibid.

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In Abortion, Politics on May 28, 2012 at 12:00 am
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The Compromise of 1877

The Republican Party Preferred Power

The Colored Line Is Broken

“Doubtless the relentless violence that the terror squads meted out on Black voters had something do to with the trend [above]. After the paramilitary campaign of 1868, there were few ‘open Radicals’ (Black or White Republicans) in Pulaski County.” 1


What Price The Presidency?

“What the South most needs is peace, and peace depends upon the supremacy of law. There can be no enduring peace, if the constitutional rights of any portion of the people are habitually disregarded. … All parts of the Constitution are sacred, and must be sacredly observed the parts that are new no less than the parts that are old. The moral and material prosperity of the Southern States can be most effectually advanced by a hearty and generous recognition of the rights of all, by all a recognition without reserve or exception.” — Rutherford B. Hayes, accepting the Republican Party Nomination for Presidency of the United States, Columbus, Ohio – July 8, 1876 2


Rutherford B. HayesIn 1876 the Republican Party had been hurt by financial corruption charges during the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant and thus needed a new candidate for the Presidency. 3 The safe liberal politics, party loyalty, and solid war record of the Governor of Ohio, made Rutherford Birchard Hayes the best hope for the Republican Party in the 1876 presidential election. 4 In the end Hayes lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. The count was 4,284,757 or 51% of the vote for Tilden against 4,033,950 or 48% for Hayes. 5 However, in order to win a candidate needed 185 electoral votes. 6 With 51% of the popular vote Tilden controlled 184 electoral votes and with 48% of the popular vote Hayes controlled 165. 7 Nevertheless, Hayes became the 19th President of the United States (1877-1881) in one of the most contentious, controversial, and morally bankrupt elections in American history. 8 When the dust was settled, and the now infamous Compromise of 1877 in the bag, Hayes had won the presidency by a single electoral vote (185-184). 9 Thomas Dartmouth -Daddy- Rice was a white man who performed in blackface.Yes, in 1876 the Republican Party controlled the White House and the Senate, but at what price? In the aftermath, the Compromise of 1877, gave power to a popular blackfaced Northerner named “Jim Crow” and legitimized by “de jury” his racist political career for the next eighty-nine (89) years. 10

The Republican Compromise Of 1877

“Reconstruction was ended by the Compromise of 1877, a morally flawed but historically consequential arrangement that put Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House and removed federal troops from the South. This compromise consisted of an agreement to drop the Negro problem from the agenda of national policy questions. Hayes called it the ‘let alone‘ policy. It was similar to what others before him had called ‘popular sovereignty‘ and to what others after him have called ‘benign neglect.’ In each case it meant the same thing: no issue of justice was at stake and, therefore, national policy was not required to address the issue. Whatever the Negro problem was, it was not a public problem.” — Alan B. Anderson and George W. Pickering, “Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago” 11


“One of the strangest things about the career of Jim Crow was that the system was born in the North and reached an advanced age before moving South in force.” — C. Vann Woodward, Author of “The Strange Career of Jim Crow” 12


The substance of the Compromise of 1877 13 stated that Southern Democrats would recognize Hayes as president with the understanding that Republicans would meet certain demands. Here’s the deal.

The Republican Party pledged to …

Remove All Federal Troops

 

Compromise Indeed!Removing federal troops from the South would end the Radical Reconstruction Era of the Republican Party and leave the “race problem” in the racist xenophobic hands of former Confederate (i.e., democratic-controlled) state legislatures. As such this clause enabled the Democratic Party to regain the political control of the South that they had lost at the end of the American Civil War. In most of these states Black Codes 14 were reintroduced, Jim Crow 15 was embraced and a large percentage of Black Americans lost the right to vote in future elections.

Rebuild The Southern Economy

 

This clause required legislation to be passed in order to industrialize the South and get the former Confederate States back on their feet after suffering such a terrible loss during the Civil War.

Fund The Texas and Pacific Railroad

 

Truce! Not A Compromise!This clause is where it gets interesting. The construction of a transcontinental railroad in the South was the goal of the “Scott Plan,” 16 proposed by Thomas Alexander Scott (the ‘Railroad Prince‘), an American businessman who at the time was the fourth president of what was the largest corporation in the world, the Pennsylvania Railroad. As a longtime friend of Samuel J. Tilden, 17 the Democratic Party’s presidential candidate, it was Scott who took the leading role in crafting the Compromise of 1877.

Appoint A Southern Democrat To Hayes’ Cabinet

 

This resulted in David M. Key, 18 the Democratic United States Senator from Tennessee becoming the Postmaster General. Since Hayes was so narrowly elected, this clause was not unusual or unexpected.

In exchange the Democrat Party pledged to …

Accept Hayes’ Presidency

 

The pledges were made, Hayes removed the troops, but the promises were soon broken. Over the next twenty (20) years, Black Americans in the South were systematically disfranchised until virtually none could vote. 19

Respect The Rights Of Black Americans

 

Of Course He Wants To Vote The Democratic Ticket!Ultimately, once the restraining forces of the Radical Republican Party were removed, Jim Crow seized power and shameless segregation ruled the day. Here’s a case in point: In Mississippi, with nothing to keep the South from her predilection for lynching Negroes, White paramilitary hate group members no longer felt the need to disguise themselves as they did in the hay days of the First Ku Klux Klan (1865-1869). 20 So complete was the Democratic Party’s victory, by way of the Compromise of 1877, that Adelbert Ames, the Republican Governor of Mississippi, fled the state rather than face impeachment charges by the newly elected Democratic legislature. 21


James WormleyThe Compromise of 1877, also known as the Wormley Agreement 22 was settled at the James Wormely Hotel in Washington D.C., at the corner of 15th and “H” Northwest on Saturday, February 26th, 1877. How fitting it is to note here that representatives of both the Republican and Democratic Parties used a propriety owned by a Black American in the North for the venue to reach an agreement that sealed and signaled the Republican Party’s abandonment of Black Americans in the South (Ecclesiastes 1:9). James Wormley 23 was the only Black American at the bedside of Abraham Lincoln when he died and in his defense, took no part in the decisions reached in the Compromise of 1877 and as a proprietor only provided the hall.

The Republican Compromise Of 2012

“If I have the opportunity to serve as our nation’s next president, I commit to doing everything in my power to cultivate, promote, and support a culture of life in America.” — Willard Mitt Romney, “My Pro-Life Pledge,” June 18th, 2011 24


Two Men Shaking HandsDuring the American Civil War, the national debt had increased by a staggering 4,000 percent (4000%). 25 After the war most White Northerners, preoccupied with the economic problems of unemployment and falling farm prices, were less concerned about violent acts of White Southerners against Black Americans in the South. So by 1870, “Waving The Bloody Shirt” 26 with the blood stains of carpetbaggers (i.e., Northerners who moved to the South) whipped by the Ku Klux Klan had lost its appeal. Furthermore, by 1876 it was clear that the North was satisfied that legislation such as the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments had solved the “race problem” in the South and wanted the Republican Party to move on from social issues to economic issues. 27 This sounds so very familiar to me.


RNC LogoToday, the Republican Party, wanting to move on from social issues to economic issues, 28 is facing the same temptation to satisfy the conscience of her socially conservative constituents with a Pro-Life presidential candidate that has pledged to limit abortion to only instances of rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. 29 This is the Republican Compromise of 2012. Limiting abortion with an executive order that reinstates the Mexico City Policy, with legislation that repeals, restricts, regulates, reduces and defunds abortion and with the appointment of Supreme Court justices who support reversing Roe v. Wade will not end abortion.

Until the Republican Party …

Progress, far from consisting in change, depends on retentiveness. When change is absolute there remains no being to improve and no direction is set for possible improvement: and when experience is not retained, as among savages, infancy is perpetual. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” — George Santayana, The Life of Reason (5 volumes, 1905-1906) 30


History is for human self-knowledge … the only clue to what man can do is what man has done. The value of history, then, is that it teaches us what man has done and thus what man is.” — Robin George Collingwood, The Life of Reason (5 volumes, 1905-1906) 31


Two Men Shaking HandsAbortion is a business, businesses are born with a product and customers are the lifeblood of businesses. Reducing abortion will not end abortion. Removing government subsidies from abortion providers will not end abortion. Reversing the current direction in Washington D.C. will not end abortion. Until the Republican Party embraces the biblical truth that only human life is sacred from the beginning of our biological development until death. Until the Republican Party understands that the only stronghold, strategy and sadistic sanctuary the abortion industrial complex can retreat to, in order to maintain their illegitimate air of credibility, is to portray itself as the only option caring enough to help poor women in communities of color. Until the Republican Party moves the hearts and minds of people in a way that meets the physical, spiritual and emotional needs of women and children helpless, homeless, hungry or without healthcare. Until the Republican Party learns to communicate compassion in a way that helps the poor realize that the golden promises of socialized healthcare only serve to hide the huge economic loss those social programs will cost their children and grandchildren in the future for putting these programs on the government’s credit card. Until the Republican Party fiscal conservatives unite with her social conservatives on the common ground of abortion’s $45 trillion dollar cost to our country 32 (please note, that’s roughly three times our national debt) and build a strong solidified party presence in America … 

History will repeat itself.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

 

Reference(s):

01. Mark V. Wetherington “Plain Folk’s Fight: The Civil War and Reconstruction Piney Woods Georgia” (http://bit.ly/KLLrsV).
02. Rutherford B. Hayes, “Letter Accepting the Republican Party Nomination for Presidency of the United States” Columbus, Ohio – July 8, 1876, The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center (http://bit.ly/KJiIlO).
03. Ulysses S. Grant Presidential Administration Scandals, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/cAr5ZH).
04. Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of The United States, The White House (http://1.usa.gov/btOz9q).
05. United States Presidential Election, 1876, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/ZO3I0).
06. United States Presidential Election, 1876, “Electoral disputes“, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/dlZtm3).
07. Electoral Commission (United States), Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KUw4ys).
08. Ibid.
09. Ibid.
10. C. Vann Woodward, “The Strange Career of Jim Crow” (http://bit.ly/JJ5Miv). See also Kevin C. Murphy, “Orals Reading Notes: The Strange Career of Jim Crow, C. Vann Woodward” (http://bit.ly/Jx12xK).
11. Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago, by Alan B. Anderson, George W. Pickering, University of Georgia Press, 528 pages (http://bit.ly/La6nXn).
12. The Origins of “Jim Crow” Laws, The 1898 Wilmington Institute for Education and Research
Understanding The Conflict and Its Origins (http://bit.ly/Kr8BAb).
13. Eric Hunter, The Compromise of 1877 (http://bit.ly/Kb5EYs). See also Compromise of 1877, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/8nfVbq) and “The Second Corrupt Bargain,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/JLMnQ0).
14. Black Codes (United States), Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/4mZM5k). See also See also JimCrowHistory.Org Glossary: Black Codes (http://bit.ly/MB7swg).
15. Ronald L. F. Davis, Ph. D., “Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay” (http://bit.ly/wfZyBG). See also “The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow“, Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) – Educational Broadcasting Corporation (http://to.pbs.org/LaDc9j).
16. Thomas A. Scott, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/JLozLZ).
17. Re-Assessing Tom Scott, the ‘Railroad Prince’, by T. Lloyd Benson and Trina Rossman, Furman University (http://bit.ly/KOfspr).
18. David M. Key, Biography, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/K5Vuch).
19. American President: Rutherford B. Hayes, “End of Reconstruction,” The Miller Center (http://bit.ly/K8Jrtl).
20. Op. cit., Ronald L. F. Davis, Ph. D., “Creating White Supremacy from 1865 to 1890″.
21. Ibid.
22. Wormley Agreement, “African-American Business Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary,” by John N. Ingham, Lynne B. Feldman, Greenwood Publishing Group, Page 710 (http://bit.ly/LvCmXI). See also the “Infamous Final Scene of The Crime of 1876?” by Nicholas E. Hollis (http://bit.ly/bpFP8h).
23. James Wormley, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/JxuX3d). See also James Wormley Family Archive, PBS Antiques Roadshow (http://to.pbs.org/JxwCFW).
24. My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011 (http://mi.tt/l7wEg1).
25. Op. cit., American President: Rutherford B. Hayes, “Money and the Economy,” The Miller Center.
26. The Bloody Shirt: Terror After Appomattox, by Stephen Budiansky, Penguin Publishers, Prologue, Page 2 (http://bit.ly/KGKPWO). See also “Waving The Bloody Shirt, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/5ZIaQy).
27. Confronting the Color Line: The Broken Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago, Alan B. Anderson, George W. Pickering, University of Georgia Press, Page 25 (http://bit.ly/K5ACjM).
28. California GOP Out Of Sync With Most State Voters, by Joe Garofoli, San Francisco Chronicle, Posted Friday, February 24th, 2012 (http://bit.ly/K5EJMR). See also For Republican, Social Issues Are Losers, by Julian Zelizer, CNN Contributor, Posted Tuesday, February 28th, 2012 (http://bit.ly/AgyAuI).
29. Op. cit., My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011.
30. George Santayana, The Life of Reason, Volume 1, Chapter XII, 1905 US (Spanish-Born) philosopher (1863 — 1952) (http://bit.ly/eRx9Sa).
31 Robin George Collingwood, a British philosopher and historian and author the book “The Idea of History” (http://bit.ly/1sE3C) and (http://bit.ly/JLYT22). See also “Learning from History” (http://bit.ly/JjHX1y).
32. Dennis M. Howard, “Economic Impact of Abortion” The Movement for a Better America, Inc. (http://bit.ly/10rYIN).

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Ulysses S. Grant And The Invisible Empire

President Grant Was A Radical Republican Politican

1928 KKK Membership ID

Membership card of A.F. Handcock in the Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. This certifies that the bearer, whose signature appears hereon, has been found worthy of advancement in the mysteries of Klancraft. 1


Radical Republican President Grant Destroyed The First Klan

“My support for your organization must remain completely invisible.” — Confederate General Robert E. Lee, a member of the original Ku Klux Klan (KKK) whose statement inspired the Klan’s nickname: “Invisible Empire.” 2


Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States from 1869–1877. 3 As President he led the Radical Republicans in their effort to eliminate all remaining vestiges of Confederate nationalism, slavery and effectively destroyed the first incarnation of Ku Klux Klan in 18714 The First Klan founded in 1865 in Pulaski, Tennessee, by six veterans of the Confederate Army flourished in the South following the American Civil War and has been called America’s first true terrorist group. 5 Members utilized white costumes: robes, masks, and conical hats, designed to mystify, terrify and hide their true identities. 6 Today the Ku Klux Klan is splintered into several independent chapters with no apparent connections between them and is rightly classified as a hate group with an estimated membership between 3,000 and 5,000 as of 2012. 7

Former Black Slaves Endorsed The Radical Republican Party

“Yes, sir. [The Ku Klux Klan] is a protective political military organization. I am willing to show any man the constitution of the society. The members are sworn to recognize the government of the United States. It does not say anything at all about the government of Tennessee. Its objects originally were protection against Loyal Leagues and the Grand Army of the Republic; but after it became general it was found that political matters and interests could best be promoted within it, and it was then made a political organization, giving it’s support, of course, to the democratic party.” — former Confederate Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest, in a Cincinnati Commercial, August 28, 1868 Interview. 8


The Two PlatformsAfter the North’s victory and during Reconstruction, The State of Tennessee ratified the Fourteenth (14th) Amendment and gave Black American’s the right to vote. 9 As a result, Tennessee’s August gubernatorial election of 1867 was the first time in the Tennessee’s history that Black Americans would be allowed to vote. Actually and more significantly, this was the first time since President Abraham Lincoln’s Friday, January 1st, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation that Black American’s in the South would vote at all. Nevertheless, in the The Two Platformsdark background of election politics, former Confederate Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest who was serving as the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, was keeping his Klansmen in line in an effort to deflect the attention of the United States Military (i.e., Union soldiers) away from the Klan’s terrorist program that sought to restore White Supremacy by threats and violence, including murder, against freed Black Slaves and White Republicans. 10 Working with “Conservatives” (a coalition of Democrats and old-line Whigs) Lieutenant General Nathan Forrest tried to convince former Black Slaves that their The Two Platformsformer Slave Masters were their best friends and that they held their best interest at heart. 11 To the Klans surprise, the former Black Slaves in Tennessee did not believe them and overwhelmingly voted for the Radical Republicans. Knee deep in denial, the Ku Klux Klan believed that freed Black Slaves voted Republican because “carpetbaggers” (a derogatory term Southerners gave to Northerners who moved to the South) and “scalawags” (a derogatory term for Southern Whites who supported the Radical Republican Party) told them to and once freed from such, former Black Slaves would gladly return to being the “good niggers” they were before the American Civil War. 12 However, nothing was ever farther from the truth. Below is an explanation for why freed Black Slaves endorsed the Radical Republicans by a delegation of freed South Carolina Black Slaves.

ADDRESS TO THE NATIVE WHITES
By the Colored People of South Carolina to the Charleston Democratic Party
From the American Missionary, Vol. XII., October 1868, No. 10.

The White League and the Ku Klux Klan[You] derided the idea of granting us the right to vote; when your legislature met in 1865-66, you passed that infamous Black Code … Your laws provided for taking and binding-out our children and subjecting us to all manner of disabilities. We could not pursue any trade or calling in this State without written permission from some White man; we could not sell any article of barter without the consent first obtained from some magistrate. With all these facts before us, and your Negro Code before us … do you not see why we have been constrained to trust in strangers rather than to those who claim that they are our natural friends? Can you have the heart to ask colored men to vote for men who deny that they are capable of voting intelligently? Can you ask us to vote our liberties away forever? Can you ask us to sustain a party which is pledged to divest us of all privileges in law which we now enjoy? Can you hope that we will be frightened at your threat of extermination because we wish to enjoy the same rights in common with other men? We do not feel assured that to vote for your party will be advantageous to us and our children. 13


Confederal General and Grand Wizard Nathan Bedford ForrestAfter the 1867 Radical Republican victory in Tennessee the former Confederate Lieutenant General and then present Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard Nathan Bedford Forrest released his army of Klansmen and by October 1867 twenty-five (25) murders, thirty-five (35) assaults with intent to kill, eighty-three (83) assaults and batteries, four (4) rapes and four (4) arsons were reported to Major General Oliver Otis Howard of the United States Army (formerly the Union Army) in Tennessee. 14 Thank God for the former Commanding General of the Union Army and then present Radical Republican President Ulysses S. Grant.

Who Were The Radical Republicans?

“The war will not end until the government shall more fully recognize the magnitude of the crisis; until they have discovered that this is an internecine war in which one party or the other must be reduced to hopeless feebleness and the power of further effort shall be utterly annihilated. It is a sad but true alternative. … How, then, can the war be carried on so as to save the Union and constitutional liberty? Prejudices may be shocked, weak minds startled, weak nerves may tremble, but they must hear and adopt it. Universal emancipation must be proclaimed to all.” — Thadeus Stevens, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania’s 9th District (March 4th, 1859 – August 11th, 1868) 15


The Radical Republicans were a small group within the Republican Party from about 1854 until the end of Reconstruction in 1877. 16 They called themselves “radicals” because they strongly opposed slavery, distrusted ex-Confederate politicians and demanded harsh policies for Reconstruction 17 such as the:

Civil Rights Acts of 1866
Declared that people born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power are entitled to be citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. 18

Fourteenth (14th) Amendment
Provided a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the 1857 United States Supreme Court Dred Scott decision and installed the “Due Process Clause” which prohibited state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. 19

Force Act of 1870
Restricted the first wave of the Ku Klux Klan by banning the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent people from voting because of their race. The First Ku Klux Klan was all but eradicated within a year of federal prosecution. 20

Civil Rights Acts of 1871
Protected Black Americans from the Ku Klux Klan by providing a civil remedy for abuses then being committed in the South. 21

Are There Any Radical Republicans Today?

“I make no pretension to patriotism. So long as my voice can be heard on this or the other side of the Atlantic, I will hold up America to the lightning scorn of moral indignation. In doing this, I shall feel myself discharging the duty of a true patriot; for he is a lover of his country who rebukes and does not excuse its sins. It is righteousness that exalteth a nation while sin is a reproach to any people.” — Frederick Douglass, September 24, 1847 Speech on American Slavery Delivered in Syracuse, New York 22


The Radical Republican Convention of 1866It is not difficult for me to imagine what life would be like for Black America today without the righteous and right-minded efforts of the Radical Republicans of the past. Still, the question before us is: are there any Radical Republicans today? Today our country is split over the incontestable evil of abortion on demand and same-sex marriage. The answer will not be found in compromise legislation that restricts, regulates or reduces abortion or the promotion of homosexuality. The answer will be found in the hearts of men and women who are steadfastly committed to an uncompromised biblical worldview that can not only see the end of abortion on demand and same-sex marriage but also see a day where the needs of women, children and communities of color are met. The Radical Republicans of the past picked a platform to stand on and refused to settle for anything less than “equality of man before his Creator,” 23 even at the expense of their public office.


The Radical Republican Convention of 1866Nevertheless, I have long wondered what happened to the Radical Republicans of the past? It seems to me history suggests that after 1868 the “Radicals” lost interest in the fate of the Freedmen, became more concerned about fiscal policies, began to view Black Americans as “potentially dangerous to the economy because they might prove to be labor radicals” and jumped the Radical Republican ship to become members of the Liberal Republican camp. Furthermore, I cannot help but wonder if conservative fiscal policies that lead to the preservation of personal profit is where the heart and soul of the Republican Party is today? With the moral compass of our country broken and November quickly coming into view, I’ve been asked on more than one occasion: Are there any Radical Republicans today?

The truth is, I’m still looking.

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Reference(s):

01. Ku Klux Klan membership card #402463. From the USF Tampa Library Special & Digital Collections (http://bit.ly/KddUFD).
02. Confederate General Robert E. Lee, From the Indiana Historical Research Foundation (http://bit.ly/J3Zmb6).
03. Ulysses S. Grant, The White House (http://1.usa.gov/gC1noa).
04. Ulysses S. Grant, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/110cKI).
05. Ku Klux Klan, The First Klan, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/fCGx2A).
06. Op. cit., Introduction to Ku Klux Klan, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/Uh74t).
07. Ku Klux Kontraction, “How did the KKK lose nearly one-third of its chapters in one year?” by Brian Palmer, Posted Thursday, March 8, 2012 (http://slate.me/yNWtZr).
08. “Nathan Bedford Forrest: In Search of the Enigma,” authored by Eddy W. Davison, Daniel Foxx (http://bit.ly/JA6b6U).
09. Blacks vote for the first time in the South, from the University of Richmond (http://bit.ly/KhWSDS).
10. “The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America,” authored by Wyn Craig Wade, page 44. (http://bit.ly/LbZyUl).
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. “The American missionary, Volume 12,” from the Congregational Home Missionary Society (http://goo.gl/dzglF).
14. Op. cit., “The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America,” authored by Wyn Craig Wade, page 46. (http://bit.ly/Jk8MUB).
15. “The life of Thaddeus Stevens: A study in American political history, especially in the period of the civil war and reconstruction,” authored by James Albert Woodburn, page 178. (http://bit.ly/Kxn43c).
16. Radical Republicans, authored by John Simkin (BA, MA, MPhil), Spartacus Educational (http://bit.ly/nmHD3V).
17. “Reconstruction of the South,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/JWsX8O).
18. Civil Rights Act of 1866, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/b4oSht).
19. Fourteenth Amendment, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/37bn).
20. Force Act of 1870, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/JkI2Cv).
21. Civil Rights Acts of 1871, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/GP0HW).
22. Frederick Douglass (http://bit.ly/4CQWHR).
23. Thaddeus Stevens Biography, Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology (http://bit.ly/JWu8oW). See also Thaddeus Stevens: Statesman, Philanthropist, Visionary (http://goo.gl/maLJI).

Environmental Products (2)

In Abortion, Politics on May 14, 2012 at 2:27 am
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Andrew Johnson And Reconstruction

Was Andrew Johnson A Union Man In Name Only?

Andrew Johnson Impeachment Ticket

On Monday, February 24th, 1868, the House impeached Andrew Johnson 126 to 47. On Tuesday, May 26th, 1868, by a margin of one vote, the Senate acquitted Johnson, and he served the duration of Abraham Lincoln’s term. 1


Events Leading Up To Impeachment

“‘The sovereignty of the States’ is the language of the Confederacy, and not the language of the Constitution. The latter contains the emphatic words — This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made or which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.” — Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States of America: 1865-1869. First Annual Message, Monday, December 4th, 1865. 2


Until the impeachment of William Jefferson “Bill” Clinton that would come one hundred and thirty (130) years later, 3 Andrew Johnson’s impeachment was the first and only presidential impeachment in the history of the United States and it provided some of the most dramatic events of its time. 4 The stage was set. Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated. The American Civil War had ended. The Confederacy was defeated. Chattel Slavery in America was finally over. Reconstruction in the South was underway and the tension between congress and the oval office was at an all time high. 5President Andrew Johnson With Signature

So What Happened?

Andrew Johnson, was the only Southern senator not to resign his seat during the Civil War. In 1864 Johnson was nominated as the vice presidential candidate on the National Union Party ticket. When Lincoln was re-elected on Tuesday, November 8th, 1864, Johnson served as Vice President of the United States of America from Saturday, March 4th, 1865 to Saturday, April 15th, 1865 (the day Lincoln was assassinated). 6 While Johnson was an out spoken War Democrat from the South (Tennessee), a tireless critic of the South’s secession and a staunch supporter of Lincoln’s military policies, he was a Union man in name only as he remained pro-slavery. 7 So the drama begins. Right after the assassination of Lincoln and while congress was in recess, Johnson implemented his own version of Reconstruction that allowed Southern states to re-form their civil governments via routine pardons and established “Black Codes” which limited the basic human rights and civil liberties of Black Americans in a way that maintained antebellum slavery under a different name. 8

Black Codes” were rooted in the “Slave Codes” that were in effect before the defeat of the South. The justification for chattel slavery in America was that Black Americans were property, not persons, and as such, they had few, if any, legal rights. The “Slave Codes” were necessary and effective tools of the South against slave unrest and uprisings. Under the enforcement of “Slave Codes” corporal punishment was widely and harshly employed. 9

When Johnson abandoned his originally stricter plan for Reconstruction, 10 the heretofore unprecedented fight to hold a sitting President of the United States of America accountable was on.

Holding The President Accountable (1865-1869)

“This is a country for White men, and by God, as long as I am President, it shall be a government for White men.” — Andrew Johnson, in a letter written to the Governor Thomas C. Flecther of Missouri, according to the Cincinnati Enquirer. 11


On Monday, July 16th, 1866 Congress overrode President Johnson’s veto and the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill which provided shelter and provision for former slaves and protection of their rights in court became law. 12 On Saturday, March 2nd, 1867 Congress passed the First Reconstruction Act. 13 President Andrew Johnson With SignatureOn Sunday, March 3rd, 1867, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act which stripped President Johnson of the power to remove federal officials without approval from the Senate. 14 On Saturday, March 23rd, 1867 Congress passed the Second Reconstruction Act and in response to the first edition of the Ku Klux Klan established a military Reconstruction program to enforce political and civil rights of Black Americans and white Republicans in the South. 15 On Monday, April 9th, 1866 Congress overrode President Johnson’s veto and the Civil Rights Act which defined all persons born in the U.S. as citizens. 16 On Thursday, July 9th, 1868 Congress enacted the Fourteenth (14th) Amendment to the United States Constitution which authorized the federal government to protect the rights of all citizens17 With the exception of the Fourteenth (14th) Amendment each of the above pieces of “landmark legislation” was passed over President Johnson’s opposition and veto. 18 On Monday, February 24th, 1868 the United States House of Representatives impeached President Johnson in accordance with Article Two of the United States Constitution. 19 On Tuesday, May 26th, 1868, after an intense trial, President Johnson was acquitted by the United States Senate by a single vote. Johnson served the remainder of Lincoln’s term. 20 After the Tuesday, November 3rd, 1868 presidential election of Ulysses S. Grant, President Johnson, in one of his last official acts, granted unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on Christmas Day (Friday, December 25th, 1868). 21

President Barack Obama Kept His Word To Planned Parenthood

The Planned Parenthood Action Fund is proud to endorse Barack Obama for president of the United States,” said Action Fund president Cecile Richards. “He is a passionate advocate for women’s rights, and has a long and consistent record of standing up for women’s health care. As president, he will improve access to quality health care for women, support and protect a woman’s right to choose, support comprehensive sex education to keep our young people healthy and safe, and invest in prevention programs, including family planning services and breast cancer screenings.” — Cecile Richards, President of the Planned Parenthood Action Fund, the political and advocacy arm of Planned Parenthood Federation of America. 22


As president I’ll make sure women have access to affordable health care, including affordable reproductive services. I thank you for your endorsement and your leadership.” — United States Senator Barack Hussein Obama II 23


I am proud to have President Obama on our side … President Obama gets it, and he hasn’t stopped fighting since his first day in office. He knows how important women’s health is, and he respects the right of every woman to make her own medical decisions … That’s why I hope you’ll join me in sending a message of support to President Obama today. And because the president is such a strong ally for women’s health and Planned Parenthood, he has a message for you, too.” — Cecile Richards, President of Planned Parenthood Federation of America. 24


On Monday, July 7th, 2008 Planned Parenthood, endorsed Senator Barack Hussein Obama II for President as their choice for President of the United States of America. Below is why in their own words: 25


  1. Senator Obama has received a 100 percent rating from the Planned Parenthood Action Fund. As a State Senator in Illinois and a United States Senator, Senator Obama has a strong voting record when it comes to women’s health.

  2. Senator Obama co-sponsored multiple pieces of legislation that focused on common sense prevention measures to reduce the number of unintended pregnancies, including the Prevention First Act; the Communities of Color Teen Pregnancy Prevention Act; and the Responsible Education About Life (REAL) Act.

  3. Senator Obama supported affordable quality health care, including family planning services, breast cancer screenings, and other preventive health care that Planned Parenthood provides.

  4. Senator Obama supported a woman’s right to choose and was a co-sponsor of the Freedom of Choice Act, which would codify and protect a woman’s right to choose.

  5. Senator Obama supported expanding access to affordable birth control and co-sponsored the Prevention Through Affordable Access Act, which would restore affordable birth control to safety-net clinics and college health clinics.

  6. Senator Obama championed family planning access for women worldwide and voted to repeal the destructive global gag rule, which bars any U.S. aid for international family planning organizations that perform or promote abortions.

  7. Senator Obama supported medically accurate comprehensive sex education to keep our young people healthy and safe, and voted in favor of legislation to fund medically accurate sex education.


As President, Barack Hussein Obama II has kept his word to Planned Parenthood. His record (click here) speaks clearly for itself. 26 Time and time again, our President has proven that he can be trusted to back abortion on demand and be held accountable for using his office to promote Planned Parenthood’s agenda. 27

Holding The President Accountable Today

“If I have the opportunity to serve as our nation’s next president, I commit to doing everything in my power to cultivate, promote, and support a culture of life in America.” — Willard Mitt Romney, “My Pro-Life Pledge,” June 18th, 2011 28


Former Massachusetts Governor Willard Mitt Romney is likely to be the Republican Party’s 2012 candidate for President. 29 He will be running against the Democratic Party’s incumbent President, Barack Hussein Obama II, in the 2012 election for the presidency of the United States of America. Willard Mitt Romney has given his Pro-Life Pledge to the Pro-Life movement. Here it is … 


“My Pro-Life Pledge” By Willard Mitt Romney 30

… I Will …

  1. Limit abortion to only instances of rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother.

  2. Support the reversal of Roe v. Wade.

  3. Reinstate the Mexico City Policy.

  4. Repeal Obamacare.

  5. Support the defunding of Planned Parenthood.

  6. Advocate for and support a Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act to protect unborn children who are capable of feeling pain from abortion.

  7. Support the Hyde Amendment, which broadly bars the use of federal funds for abortions.

  8. Appoint judges who adhere to the Constitution and the laws as they are written, not as they want them to be written.

  9. Do everything in my power to cultivate, promote, and support a culture of life in America.


Willard Mitt Romney is the only 2012 Republican Party presidential candidate that did not sign the Personhood Pledge (click here). 31 I suspect Willard Mitt Romney personally believes that the child in the womb is a “person” but establishing legal personhood for the child in the womb would not allow him to support abortion on demand in the case of exceptions. It’s been my experience that what you believe personally is not as important as what you believe the law should be. [See Note]

It’s early, but according to the first Gallup poll of the 2012 general election campaign, Willard Mitt Romney has the support of 47% of the registered voters nationwide, while President Barack Hussein Obama II has 45%. 32 This is good news. With his eyes on the United States Supreme Court, Willard Mitt Romney has already formed a judicial search committee for presidential appointments Life Tape Glasses With The Supreme Court Reflectedchaired by both Mary Ann Glendon and Robert Bork. 33 Mary Ann Glendon was selected by Pope John Paul II to head the Vatican delegation to the Beijing women’s convention and teaches Constitutional Law at Harvard Law School. 34 Robert Heron Bork is a former Yale Law School professor, Solicitor General, Acting Attorney General, and Judge for the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Both Glendon and Bork are publicly critical of Roe35 This too is good news. On Monday night, May 7th, 2012, Rick Santorum endorsed Willard Mitt Romney via email saying: “The task will not be easy. It will require all hands on deck if our nominee is to be victorious. Governor Romney will be that nominee and he has my endorsement and support to win this the most critical election of our lifetime.” 36 This is more good news. However, it’s still better news to know that the Pro-Life movement has committed herself to unequivocally supporting Willard Mitt Romney and holding him accountable for fulfilling his Pro-Life Pledge37

As such, the question before us today is twofold:

  1. As President will Mitt Romney keep his Pro-Life pledge?

  2. How will the Pro-Life movement hold President Mitt Romney accountable?

As it was in 1865 with President Andrew Johnson with the life of my people at stake, so it will be in 2013 with President Willard Mitt Romney with the lives of our children at stake. I believe Willard Mitt Romney will keep his word. However, will the Republican Party today hold President Willard Mitt Romney accountable for keeping his Pro-Life Pledge like the Radical Republicans of the past kept President Andrew Johnson accountable for staying the course?

I hope so.

“Do not let us mistake necessary evils for good.” — C.S. Lewis 38


Brothers, we really need to talk.

Note(s):
· Martin Luther King, Jr., “It may be true that the law cannot make a man love me, but it can keep him from lynching me, and I think that’s pretty important.” Quoted in The Wall Street Journal, Tuesday, November 13th, 1962. See also Dr. Martin Luther King’s 1963 Western Michigan University speech (http://bit.ly/wsAUTO). 

Reference(s):
01. Andrew Johnson, “American President: A Reference Resource”, The Miller Center at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (http://bit.ly/qA5YwE).
02. “Andrew Johnson, “First Annual Message,” Monday, December 4th, 1865. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. (http://bit.ly/JlOQto).
03. Impeachment of Bill Clinton, as the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, was impeached by the House of Representatives on two charges, one of perjury and one of obstruction of justice, on December 19, 1998. Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/cUFb4K).
04. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, as the 17th President of the United States, Andrew Johnson was the first sitting United States president to be impeached. Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/7DEw43).
05. Ibid. (http://bit.ly/IvzPd3).
06. President Andrew Johnson, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/4FBCJ8).
07. Op. cit., American President A Reference Resource, (http://bit.ly/qA5YwE).
08. Black Code Definition, by Lloyd Duhaime, Barrister, Solicitor, Attorney and Lawyer, “Statutes passed by pro-slavery, Southern states of the USA before and after the Civil War, to limit the civil rights of slaves or freed slaves. All black codes were eventually repealed.” (http://bit.ly/IzbT77).
09. The American Black Codes 1865-1866, The George Washington University, Washington D.C. (http://bit.ly/bpi4Bv).
10. Hans Louis Trefousse, “Andrew Johnson: A Biography” (1989), the “Unionist President,” Chapter 11 (http://bit.ly/IKkfG9).
11. Ibid. Johnson quote on page 236 (http://bit.ly/JWN04a).
12. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/7DEw43). See also The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Mr. Kash’s History Page (http://bit.ly/ISnluF). Jeff Kash is a history teacher at Madison Middle School in North Hollywood, California. The opinions expressed on Jeff’s website are his and not necessarily those of the Los Angeles Unified School District or Madison Middle School.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Planned Parenthood Action Fund Endorses Barack Obama, Planned Parenthood Action Fund, Inc. (http://bit.ly/K8SOd4).
23. Planned Parenthood endorses Obama, POLITICO, Capitol News Company LLC (http://politi.co/IPT1xW).
24. I am proud to have President Obama on our side, Planned Parenthood president Cecile Richards said, saying she is “sending the president a message of support today.” (http://bit.ly/H0IZiU).
25. Planned Parenthood Action Fund Endorses Barack Obama, Planned Parenthood Action Fund, Inc. (http://bit.ly/K8SOd4).
26. President Barack Obama’s Pro-Abortion Record: A Pro-Life Compilation, by Steve Ertelt, LifeNews.Com, Washington, D.C., November 17th, 2012 at 8:31 A.M. (EST) (http://bit.ly/cUlKxd).
27. Obama Praises Planned Parenthood Abortion Biz in New Video, Steve Ertelt, LifeNews.Com, Washington, D.C., March 29th, 2012 at 10:27 A.M. (EST) (http://bit.ly/H0IZiU).
28. My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011 (http://mi.tt/l7wEg1).
29. Romney, Santorum meet in Pittsburgh to discuss Republican Party, WPXI.Com of the Cox Media Group, Friday, May 4th, 2012 (http://bit.ly/L9ccZr).
30. My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011 (http://mi.tt/l7wEg1).
31. Personhood Republican Presidential Candidate Pledge, PersonhoodUSA, Submitted by Keith Ashley on Thursday, December 15, 2011 (http://bit.ly/tYCQQQ). See also “Romney is GOP Holdout On Personhood Pledge, Former Massachusetts Governor also refuses to attend Pro-Life debates”, (http://bit.ly/xGtZGr).
32. First general election Gallup poll shows Romney edging Obama by Michael A. Memoli, Los Angeles Times, April 16, 2012 (http://lat.ms/KqOgOc).
33. Austin Ruse, has headed the Catholic Family and Human Rights Institute (C-FAM) since shortly after its creation in the summer of 1997 and since 2000 has held the title of President. This information is from an email from Austin Ruse dated Wednesday, April 11th, 2012 in my personal collection. (http://bit.ly/IXXAwu).
34. Mary Ann Glendon Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/fJT3i).
35. Robert Heron Bork Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/12aDqN).
36. Rick Santorum’s endorsement of Mitt Romney email (http://bit.ly/LAZYc8). See also Maeve Reston’s Monday, May 7th, 2012 Los Angeles Times article (http://lat.ms/Jbh9Oc).
37. My Pro-Life Pledge, Mitt Romney, Romney for President, Inc., June 18, 2011 (http://mi.tt/l7wEg1).
38. Do not let us mistake necessary evils for good. by C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) English writer and scholar, “The Weight of Glory,” Chapter Seven: “Membership,” Read to the Society of St. Alban and St. Sergius, Oxford, February 10, 1945, Publisher HarperOne; HarperCollins R edition (March 20, 2001), p. 162 (http://amzn.to/IUok0H).

Environmental Products (1)

In Abortion, Politics on May 7, 2012 at 12:00 am
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Environmental Products (1)

George Washington And Slavery

Was Slavery A Product Of Its Environment?

George Washington The Farmer

 


Slavery In The General’s House (1775-1783)

It is foremost in my thoughts, to desire you will be particularly attentive to my Negros in their sickness; and to order every Overseer positively to be so likewise; for I am sorry to observe that the generality of them, view these poor creatures in scarcely any other light than they do a draught horse or Ox; neglecting them as much when they are unable to work; instead of comforting & nursing them when they lye on a sick bed. I lost more negros last winter than I had done it 12 or 15 years before, put them altogether. If their disorders are not common, and the mode of treating them plain, simple and well understood, send for Doctor Craik in time. In the last stage of the complaint it is unavailing to do it. It is incurring an expense for nothing.” — George Washington, a letter written to Anthony Whitting, his Mount Vernon plantation manager in 1792. 1


George Washington At HomeGeorge Washington was a slave-owner for the majority of his life. Early in life Washington inherited ten (10) slaves when he was an eleven (11) year old boy. 2 By the date of his death he owned more than 300 slaves at his Mount Vernon residence including forty (40) leased from his neighbor and not including the 153 “dower slaves” which belonged to Martha by way of first husband, Daniel Parke Custis. 3 Like all other plantation owners that had large sums of money invested in slavery, Washington’s slaves worked all day unless they were injured or ill 4. Legally Washington’s slaves could be whipped for trying to escape or for any other violation of the law. 5Bottom-Line Economics” demanded that slaves were fed, clothed, and housed as inexpensively as possible, in conditions that can only be described at best as meager.

Slavery In The President’s House (1790-1797)

“When a slave named Paul ran away in March 1795 with a neighbor’s slave, George Washington, concerned about his name surfacing in northern papers, advised William Pearce (his plantation manager) to avoid any publicity and wrote: “It is highly probable Paul has left these parts (by water or land). If Mr. Dulany is disposed to pursue any measure for the purpose of recovering his man, I will join him in the expence so far as it may respect Paul; but I would not have my name appear in any advertisement, or other measure, leading to it.” — George Washington, his March 22, 1795 Philadelphia letter to William Pearce. 6


George Washington and William Lee, his enslaved personal servant, who for many years spent more time in Washington's presence than any other man.Slavery was legal in all thirteen (13) of the American Colonies before the American Revolutionary War. 7 Slaves were considered valuable property and as a large plantation owner Washington had large sums of money invested slave labor. 8 However, by 1780 and largely by the efforts of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society (PAS), 9 Pennsylvania became the first former colony to abolish slavery. While the law did not free slaves immediately, it did offer gradual emancipation. By law slaves were registered as property, so the children born of a registered Pennsylvania slave mother after the law was in force had the legal status of indentured servants when they reached the age of twenty-eight (28). 10 So legal slavery continued in Pennsylvania until 1847. 11 As the first President of the United States of America, George Washington lived in Philadelphia in the President’s House from 1790 to 1797. 12 To avoid having Pennsylvania laws apply to his slaves, Washington maintained his residency in Virginia by making sure that neither he nor his slaves spent the six (6) continuous months necessary to establish legal residency in Philadelphia. 13

Slavery In The President’s Politics (1790-1797)

“I wish from my soul that the legislature of this State could see the policy of a gradual abolition of slavery.” — George Washington, in a letter to his nephew and private secretary, Lawrence Lewis. 14


George Washington, the first President of United States of AmericaAfter the American Revolutionary War George Washington personally rejected the institution of slavery, yet while serving as the President of the United States he supported the 1790 Naturalization Act approved by the First Congress 15 that incorporated foreigners as United States citizens, but provided for naturalization only of whites 16 and authorized emergency financial and military relief to French slave owners in Haiti to suppress the slave rebellion of 179117 Washington also signed the compromise Northwest Territory Act that banned slavery in that territory, but did not free those that were already slaves. Further still, in 1793 Washington signed the Fugitive Slave Law that gave slaveholders the right to recapture runway slaves even in free states that had abolished slavery. 18

≡ Yes, slavery was indeed a product its environment!


Was George Washington A Product Of His Environment?

· “Prior to the great Revolution, the great majority … of our people had been so long accustomed to the practice and convenience of having slaves that very few among them even doubted the propriety and rectitude of it.” — George Washington, to the English Anti-Slavery Society in June 1788 19

· “Were it not that I am principled against selling Negroes … I would not in twelve months from this date be possessed of one as a slave.” — George Washington, in a letter to Alexander Spotswood on Sunday, November 23rd, 179420

· “It is demonstratively clear that on this Estate (Mount Vernon) I have more working Negroes by a full [half] than can be employed to any advantage in the farming system.” — George Washington, in a letter to Robert Lewis on Sunday, August 18th, 179921

· “[H]alf the workers I keep on this estate would render me greater net profit than I now derive from the whole.” — George Washington, in a letter to Robert Lewis on Sunday, August 18th, 179922

· “To sell the overplus [of slaves] I cannot, because I am principled against this kind of traffic in the human species. To hire them out is almost as bad because they could not be disposed of in families to any advantage, and to disperse [break up] the families I have an aversion.” — George Washington, in a letter to Robert Lewis on Sunday, August 18th, 179923

George Washington Praying At Valley ForgeGeorge Washington was born into a wealthy family that profited from the slave labor on their tobacco plantations. By 1732, the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia was little more than a slave society, a world where the right to own slaves was protected and the right to emancipate slaves was prohibited by law. 24 ≡ Yes, George Washington was a product of his environment, however, while Washington was a slave-owner, he was also a devoted husband to Martha, a decorated general who fought for freedom in the service of Virginia’s provincial militia, a commander-in-chief who “wrenched the rights of all Americans from the tyrannical grasp of the British” 25 in the service of the Continental Army, a skilled facilitator who presided over the writing of the our Constitution and a widely respected leader who became our first President. 26 Above all George Washington was a praying man, wholly committed to his Christian faith, however, therein lies the crux of the matter. George Washington PrayingWith the blessings that come from having a wife, family and friends, Washington chose to work within a government whose majority embraced or at the very least, tacitly consented to, the incontestable evil of slavery. With a career that can only come from the blessings of a divine appointment, Washington retired from serving a system entirely based on the “art of compromise” where in the “final solution” 27 participants are expected to resign their conscience in the interest of practicality, profit and peace. ≡ Yes, George Washington was indeed a product of his environment, but frankly, so are we. So long as profits trump purpose, power trumps peace, politics trumps people, victory trumps values, race trumps religion and preservation trumps principle we are all the products of our environment.

“Be Of Good Cheer; It Is I; Be Not Afraid!”

“And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. And when the disciples saw Him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear. But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. And Peter answered Him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And He said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth His hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased.” — Matthew 14:25-32 (King James Version) 28


Jesus Saving Peter In Matthew 14:25-32.Like it or not, there is such a thing as evil. Lurking in the depths of our souls is an evil that pushes us beyond the white sandy shores of safety into the dark, deep and dangerously cold and open waters of uncertainty, vagueness and soul searching questions. Questions such as … Will God save us, if we nonviolently resist a law that is immoral, as in the case of the abolitionist resisting the 1793 Fugitive Slave Law  29 by refusing to turn over escaped slaves to authorities? Will God take care of us, if we nonviolently resist laws in order to physically lay claim to God-given rights, such as freedom, equality and life itself, as in the case of Black Americans illegally protesting during the Civil Rights movement? 30 Will God protect us, if we nonviolently resist laws in order to change immoral policies endorsed by our government such as slavery, segregation, euthanasia and abortion on demand? These are the kind of questions that flood our minds and invade our very soul as we choose to live out our faith in Christ on earth.


Jesus Saving Peter In Matthew 14:25-32.Today, we’re at a point where our babies are dismembered in their own mother’s womb on demand, our elderly are gravely threatened with euthanasia and our religious freedom is at stake. What is it going to take for us to realize that the “art of compromise” is not the means to a righteous end? The Bible says Peter walked on water, but when the waters got high and the lightning started to flash and the winds began to blow Peter feared for his life and cried out “Lord save me!” The Bible also says “and immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him.” In my opinion, even though the troubled waters of our world are deep and dark, like Peter, Christ is bidding us to walk on water with Him. I believe it’s time for us to stop being afraid of the deep and the dark, so the Holy Spirit can move us far beyond the “art of compromise” as an expression of our holy and righteous indignation. I believe God is calling us to join Him walking on the water. If we resist civil government: Will God save us? Will God take care of us? Will God protect us? Well, He’s already caught Peter and saved him, so that answers my question. What answer are you waiting for?

Brothers, we really need to talk.

Note(s):
·  Many, many thanks to David Barton of Wallbuilders. “WallBuilders is an organization dedicated to presenting America’s forgotten history and heroes, with an emphasis on the moral, religious, and constitutional foundation on which America was built — a foundation which, in recent years, has been seriously attacked and undermined. In accord with what was so accurately stated by George Washington, we believe that ‘the propitious [favorable] smiles of heaven can never be expected on a nation which disregards the eternal rules of order and right which heaven itself has ordained.'” You can visit Wallbuilder’s highly recommended website by clicking here: http://bit.ly/8y4Ga.

Reference(s):
01. “George Washington, “The Writings of George Washington: 1790-1784,” by Goeorge Washington (http://bit.ly/IaI9Q6). See also Anthony Whitting, October 14th, 1792, Washington Papers, Library of Congress. “That Species of Property”, Washington’s Role in the Controversy Over Slavery by Dorothy Twohig (http://bit.ly/I1CXtd).
02. George Washington And slavery, “Early Life,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/IsrIJO).
03. Ibid.
04. Ibid.
05. Ibid.
06. John C. Fitzpatrick, ed. “The Writings of George Washington,” Washington, D.C., 1931-44., Volume 34:154. Letter to William Pearce, March 22, 1795. (http://bit.ly/IAL7w8).
07. Laurie Halse Anderson, Forge, “The Sequel to the National Book Award Finalist “Chains”, (http://bit.ly/JJZSMO).
08. Edward Lawler, Jr., “Slavery in the President’s House” (http://bit.ly/Ik3CY8).
09. Richard S. Newman, “The Pennsylvania Aboliton Society Restoring a Group to Glory” (http://bit.ly/IfmlDZ).
10. Edward Lawler, Jr., “Slavery in the President’s House” (http://bit.ly/Ik3CY8).
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Martin Luther King, Jr., Coretta Scott King, Vincent Harding, “Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos Or Community?,” The King Legacy in association with Intellectual Properties Management, Inc., page 80. (http://bit.ly/JK2IRZ).
15. Naturalization Act of 1790, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/8GoYy8). See also “A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875″ (http://1.usa.gov/IfrLgn).
16. Ibid.
17. George Washington And slavery, “Early Life,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/IsrIJO).
18. Ibid.
19. David Barton, “George Washington, Thomas Jefferson & Slavery in Virginia,” Wall Builders (http://bit.ly/JyB9xQ).
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid.
24. George Washington, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/12RYyN). See also Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, page 28. (http://bit.ly/JqrfvZ).
25. George Washington And slavery, “Early Life,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/IsrIJO). See also George Washington, Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/12RYyN).
26. Dorothy Twohig, The Papers of George Washington, “‘That Species of Property’ Washington’s Role in the Controversy Over Slavery” (http://bit.ly/IsUGu7).
27. The “Final Solution,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/KTkRL).
28. Matthew 14:25-32 (http://bg4.me/It0e6I).
29. George Washington And slavery, “Early Life,” Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/IsrIJO).
30. African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968), Wikipedia (http://bit.ly/c3fu2Y).

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